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Table of Contents
Data Structures Aptitude...........................................................3
+ Aptitude and OOPS..............................................................52
Quantitative Aptitude..............................................................72
UNIX Concepts........................................................................84
Computer Networks..............................................................110
Operating Systems................................................................116
1.INTERVIEW TIPS................................................................121
Motivating words...................................................................127
2.At any cost don’t let your hope down, God is there to support
Useful websites.....................................................................130
Company test patterns..........................................................131
General faqs..........................................................................132
Data Structures Aptitude
1. What is data structure?
A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored, but also
their relationship to each other. Advance knowledge about the relationship between data items allows
designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data.
2. List out the areas in which data structures are applied extensively?
 Compiler Design,
 Operating System,
 Database Management System,
 Statistical analysis package,
 Numerical Analysis,
 Graphics,
 Artificial Intelligence,
 Simulation
3. What are the major data structures used in the following areas : RDBMS, Network data model &
Hierarchical data model.
 RDBMS – Array (i.e. Array of structures)
 Network data model – Graph
 Hierarchical data model – Trees
4. If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type will you
The heterogeneous linked list contains different data types in its nodes and we need a link,
pointer to connect them. It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. So we go for void pointer. Void
pointer is capable of storing pointer to any type as it is a generic pointer type.
5. Minimum number of queues needed to implement the priority queue?
Two. One queue is used for actual storing of data and another for storing priorities.
6. What is the data structures used to perform recursion?
Stack. Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its ‘caller’ so knows whom to
return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return
addresses of the function calls.
Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative (non-recursive) function. Even when such
equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used.
7. What are the notations used in Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions using prefix and postfix forms?
Polish and Reverse Polish notations.
8. Convert the expression ((A + B) * C – (D – E) ^ (F + G)) to equivalent Prefix and Postfix notations.
Prefix Notation:
^ - * +ABC - DE + FG
Postfix Notation:
AB + C * DE - - FG + ^
9. Sorting is not possible by using which of the following methods?
(a) Insertion
(b) Selection
(c) Exchange
(d) Deletion
Data Structures
Using insertion we can perform insertion sort, using selection we can perform selection sort,
using exchange we can perform the bubble sort (and other similar sorting methods). But no sorting
method can be done just using deletion.
10. A binary tree with 20 nodes has null branches?
Let us take a tree with 5 nodes (n=5)
It will have only 6 (ie,5+1) null branches. In general,
A binary tree with n nodes has exactly n+1 null nodes.
11. What are the methods available in storing sequential files ?
 Straight merging,
 Natural merging,
 Polyphase sort,
 Distribution of Initial runs.
12. How many different trees are possible with 10 nodes ?
For example, consider a tree with 3 nodes(n=3), it will have the maximum combination of 5
different (ie, 23 - 3 = 5) trees.
i ii iii iv v
In general:
If there are n nodes, there exist 2n-n different trees.
13. List out few of the Application of tree data-structure?
 The manipulation of Arithmetic expression,
 Symbol Table construction,
 Syntax analysis.
14. List out few of the applications that make use of Multilinked Structures?
 Sparse matrix,
 Index generation.
15. In tree construction which is the suitable efficient data structure?
(a) Array (b) Linked list (c) Stack (d) Queue (e) none
(b) Linked list
16. What is the type of the algorithm used in solving the 8 Queens problem?
17. In an AVL tree, at what condition the balancing is to be done?
If the ‘pivotal value’ (or the ‘Height factor’) is greater than 1 or less than –1.
Null Branches
2 3
18. What is the bucket size, when the overlapping and collision occur at same time?
One. If there is only one entry possible in the bucket, when the collision occurs, there is no way
to accommodate the colliding value. This results in the overlapping of values.
19. Traverse the given tree using Inorder, Preorder and Postorder traversals.
 Inorder : D H B E A F C I G J
 Preorder: A B D H E C F G I J
 Postorder: H D E B F I J G C A
20. There are 8, 15, 13, 14 nodes were there in 4 different trees. Which of them could have formed a full
binary tree?
In general:
There are 2n-1 nodes in a full binary tree.
By the method of elimination:
Full binary trees contain odd number of nodes. So there cannot be full binary trees with
8 or 14 nodes, so rejected. With 13 nodes you can form a complete binary tree but not a full binary tree.
So the correct answer is 15.
Full and Complete binary trees are different. All full binary trees are
complete binary trees but not vice versa.
21. In the given binary tree, using array you can store the node 4 at which
At location 6
1 2 3 - - 4 - - 5
Root LC1 RC1 LC2 RC2 LC3 RC3 LC4 RC4
where LCn means Left Child of node n and RCn means Right Child of node n
22. Sort the given values using Quick Sort?
65 70 75 80 85 60 55 50 45
Sorting takes place from the pivot value, which is the first value of the given elements, this is
marked bold. The values at the left pointer and right pointer are indicated using L and R respectively.
Given tree:
65 70L 75 80 85 60 55 50 45R
Since pivot is not yet changed the same process is continued after interchanging the values at L and R
65 45 75 L 80 85 60 55 50 R 70
65 45 50 80 L 85 60 55 R 75 70
65 45 50 55 85 L 60 R 80 75 70
65 45 50 55 60 R 85 L 80 75 70
When the L and R pointers cross each other the pivot value is interchanged with the value at right pointer.
If the pivot is changed it means that the pivot has occupied its original position in the sorted order (shown
in bold italics) and hence two different arrays are formed, one from start of the original array to the pivot
position-1 and the other from pivot position+1 to end.
60 L 45 50 55 R 65 85 L 80 75 70 R
55 L 45 50 R 60 65 70 R 80 L 75 85
50 L 45 R 55 60 65 70 80 L 75 R 85
In the next pass we get the sorted form of the array.
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
23. For the given graph, draw the DFS and BFS?
 BFS: A X G H P E M Y J
 DFS: A X H P E Y M J G
24. Classify the Hashing Functions based on the various methods by which the key value is found.
 Direct method,
 Subtraction method,
 Modulo-Division method,
 Digit-Extraction method,
 Mid-Square method,
 Folding method,
 Pseudo-random method.
25. What are the types of Collision Resolution Techniques and the methods used in each of the type?
 Open addressing (closed hashing),
The methods used include:
Overflow block,
The given graph:
1 3
2 4
410 5
 Closed addressing (open hashing)
The methods used include:
Linked list,
Binary tree…
26. In RDBMS, what is the efficient data structure used in the internal storage representation?
B+ tree. Because in B+ tree, all the data is stored only in leaf nodes, that makes searching
easier. This corresponds to the records that shall be stored in leaf nodes.
27. Draw the B-tree of order 3 created by inserting the following data arriving in sequence – 92 24 6 7
11 8 22 4 5 16 19 20 78
28. Of the following tree structure, which is, efficient considering space and time complexities?
(a) Incomplete Binary Tree
(b) Complete Binary Tree
(c) Full Binary Tree
(b) Complete Binary Tree.
By the method of elimination:
Full binary tree loses its nature when operations of insertions and deletions are done.
For incomplete binary trees, extra storage is required and overhead of NULL node checking takes place.
So complete binary tree is the better one since the property of complete binary tree is maintained even
after operations like additions and deletions are done on it.
29. What is a spanning Tree?
A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. All the nodes of the graph appear on the tree
once. A minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge weight between nodes
is minimized.
30. Does the minimum spanning tree of a graph give the shortest distance between any 2 specified
Minimal spanning tree assures that the total weight of the tree is kept at its minimum. But it
doesn’t mean that the distance between any two nodes involved in the minimum-spanning tree is
31. Convert the given graph with weighted edges to minimal spanning tree.
the equivalent minimal spanning tree is:
11 -
5 7 19 24
4 - 6 - 8 - 16 - 20 22 78
4 5
410 612
32. Which is the simplest file structure?
(a) Sequential
(b) Indexed
(c) Random
(a) Sequential
33. Whether Linked List is linear or Non-linear data structure?
According to Access strategies Linked list is a linear one.
According to Storage Linked List is a Non-linear one.
34. Draw a binary Tree for the expression :
A * B - (C + D) * (P / Q)
35. For the following COBOL code, draw the Binary tree?
02 NAME.
02 02
03 03 03 03
* *
A B + /
C Aptitude
Note : All the programs are tested under Turbo C/C++ compilers.
It is assumed that,
 Programs run under DOS environment,
 The underlying machine is an x86 system,
 Program is compiled using Turbo C/C++ compiler.
The program output may depend on the information based on this assumptions (for example
sizeof(int) == 2 may be assumed).
Predict the output or error(s) for the following:
1. void main()
int const * p=5;
Compiler error: Cannot modify a constant value.
p is a pointer to a "constant integer". But we tried to change the value of the "constant
2. main()
char s[ ]="man";
int i;
for(i=0;s[ i ];i++)
printf("\n%c%c%c%c",s[ i ],*(s+i),*(i+s),i[s]);
s[i], *(i+s), *(s+i), i[s] are all different ways of expressing the same idea. Generally
array name is the base address for that array. Here s is the base address. i is the index
number/displacement from the base address. So, indirecting it with * is same as s[i]. i[s] may be
surprising. But in the case of C it is same as s[i].
3. main()
float me = 1.1;
double you = 1.1;
printf("I love U");
printf("I hate U");
I hate U
C Aptitude
For floating point numbers (float, double, long double) the values cannot be predicted
exactly. Depending on the number of bytes, the precession with of the value represented varies. Float
takes 4 bytes and long double takes 10 bytes. So float stores 0.9 with less precision than long double.
Rule of Thumb:
Never compare or at-least be cautious when using floating point numbers with relational
operators (== , >, <, <=, >=,!= ) .
4. main()
static int var = 5;
printf("%d ",var--);
5 4 3 2 1
When static storage class is given, it is initialized once. The change in the value of a
static variable is retained even between the function calls. Main is also treated like any other ordinary
function, which can be called recursively.
5. main()
int c[ ]={2.8,3.4,4,6.7,5};
int j,*p=c,*q=c;
for(j=0;j<5;j++) {
printf(" %d ",*c);
++q; }
printf(" %d ",*p);
++p; }
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 5
Initially pointer c is assigned to both p and q. In the first loop, since only q is
incremented and not c , the value 2 will be printed 5 times. In second loop p itself is incremented. So the
values 2 3 4 6 5 will be printed.
6. main()
extern int i;
Linker Error : Undefined symbol '_i'
extern storage class in the following declaration,
extern int i;
specifies to the compiler that the memory for i is allocated in some other program and that address will be
given to the current program at the time of linking. But linker finds that no other variable of name i is
available in any other program with memory space allocated for it. Hence a linker error has occurred .
7. main()
int i=-1,j=-1,k=0,l=2,m;
printf("%d %d %d %d %d",i,j,k,l,m);
0 0 1 3 1
Explanation :
Logical operations always give a result of 1 or 0 . And also the logical AND (&&)
operator has higher priority over the logical OR (||) operator. So the expression ‘i++ && j++ && k++’
is executed first. The result of this expression is 0 (-1 && -1 && 0 = 0). Now the expression is 0 || 2
which evaluates to 1 (because OR operator always gives 1 except for ‘0 || 0’ combination- for which it
gives 0). So the value of m is 1. The values of other variables are also incremented by 1.
8. main()
char *p;
printf("%d %d ",sizeof(*p),sizeof(p));
1 2
The sizeof() operator gives the number of bytes taken by its operand. P is a character
pointer, which needs one byte for storing its value (a character). Hence sizeof(*p) gives a value of 1.
Since it needs two bytes to store the address of the character pointer sizeof(p) gives 2.
9. main()
int i=3;
case 1: printf("one");
case 2:printf("two");
case 3: printf("three");
Answer :
Explanation :
The default case can be placed anywhere inside the loop. It is executed only when all
other cases doesn't match.
10. main()
Explanation :
-1 is internally represented as all 1's. When left shifted four times the least significant 4
bits are filled with 0's.The %x format specifier specifies that the integer value be printed as a hexadecimal
11. main()
char string[]="Hello World";
void display(char *string)
Compiler Error : Type mismatch in redeclaration of function display
Explanation :
In third line, when the function display is encountered, the compiler doesn't know
anything about the function display. It assumes the arguments and return types to be integers, (which is
the default type). When it sees the actual function display, the arguments and type contradicts with what
it has assumed previously. Hence a compile time error occurs.
12. main()
int c=- -2;
Here unary minus (or negation) operator is used twice. Same maths rules applies, ie.
minus * minus= plus.
However you cannot give like --2. Because -- operator can only be applied to variables
as a decrement operator (eg., i--). 2 is a constant and not a variable.
13. #define int char
int i=65;
Since the #define replaces the string int by the macro char
14. main()
int i=10;
In the expression !i>14 , NOT (!) operator has more precedence than ‘ >’ symbol. ! is
a unary logical operator. !i (!10) is 0 (not of true is false). 0>14 is false (zero).
15. #include<stdio.h>
char s[]={'a','b','c','\n','c','\0'};
char *p,*str,*str1;
printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);
p is pointing to character '\n'. str1 is pointing to character 'a' ++*p. "p is pointing to '\n' and that
is incremented by one." the ASCII value of '\n' is 10, which is then incremented to 11. The value of ++*p
is 11. ++*str1, str1 is pointing to 'a' that is incremented by 1 and it becomes 'b'. ASCII value of 'b' is 98.
Now performing (11 + 98 – 32), we get 77("M");
So we get the output 77 :: "M" (Ascii is 77).
16. #include<stdio.h>
int a[2][2][2] = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };
int *p,*q;
p=&a[2][2][2] you declare only two 2D arrays, but you are trying to access the third
2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of a is assigned
integer pointer. Now q is pointing to starting address of a. If you print *q, it will print first element of 3D
17. #include<stdio.h>
struct xx
int x=3;
char name[]="hello";
struct xx *s;
Compiler Error
You should not initialize variables in declaration
18. #include<stdio.h>
struct xx
int x;
struct yy
char s;
struct xx *p;
struct yy *q;
Compiler Error
The structure yy is nested within structure xx. Hence, the elements are of yy are to be
accessed through the instance of structure xx, which needs an instance of yy to be known. If the instance
is created after defining the structure the compiler will not know about the instance relative to xx. Hence
for nested structure yy you have to declare member.
19. main()
\n - newline
\b - backspace
\r - linefeed
20. main()
int i=5;
The arguments in a function call are pushed into the stack from left to right. The
evaluation is by popping out from the stack. and the evaluation is from right to left, hence the result.
21. #define square(x) x*x
int i;
i = 64/square(4);
the macro call square(4) will substituted by 4*4 so the expression becomes i = 64/4*4 .
Since / and * has equal priority the expression will be evaluated as (64/4)*4 i.e. 16*4 = 64
22. main()
char *p="hai friends",*p1;
while(*p!='\0') ++*p++;
printf("%s %s",p,p1);
++*p++ will be parse in the given order
 *p that is value at the location currently pointed by p will be taken
 ++*p the retrieved value will be incremented
 when ; is encountered the location will be incremented that is p++ will be executed
Hence, in the while loop initial value pointed by p is ‘h’, which is changed to ‘i’ by executing ++*p and
pointer moves to point, ‘a’ which is similarly changed to ‘b’ and so on. Similarly blank space is converted
to ‘!’. Thus, we obtain value in p becomes “ibj!gsjfoet” and since p reaches ‘\0’ and p1 points to p thus
p1doesnot print anything.
23. #include <stdio.h>
#define a 10
#define a 50
The preprocessor directives can be redefined anywhere in the program. So the most
recently assigned value will be taken.
24. #define clrscr() 100
Preprocessor executes as a seperate pass before the execution of the compiler. So
textual replacement of clrscr() to 100 occurs.The input program to compiler looks like this :
100; is an executable statement but with no action. So it doesn't give any problem
25. main()
Some address will be printed.
Function names are just addresses (just like array names are addresses).
main() is also a function. So the address of function main will be printed. %p in printf specifies that the
argument is an address. They are printed as hexadecimal numbers.
27) main()
No output/error
The first clrscr() occurs inside a function. So it becomes a function call. In the second
clrscr(); is a function declaration (because it is not inside any function).
28) enum colors {BLACK,BLUE,GREEN}
enum assigns numbers starting from 0, if not explicitly defined.
29) void main()
char far *farther,*farthest;
the second pointer is of char type and not a far pointer
30) main()
int i=400,j=300;
printf takes the values of the first two assignments of the program. Any number of
printf's may be given. All of them take only the first two values. If more number of
assignments given in the program,then printf will take garbage values.
31) main()
char *p;
* is a dereference operator & is a reference operator. They can be applied any
number of times provided it is meaningful. Here p points to the first character in the
string "Hello". *p dereferences it and so its value is H. Again & references it to an
address and * dereferences it to the value H.
32) main()
int i=1;
while (i<=5)
if (i>2)
goto here;
Compiler error: Undefined label 'here' in function main
Labels have functions scope, in other words The scope of the labels is limited to
functions . The label 'here' is available in function fun() Hence it is not visible in function
33) main()
static char names[5][20]={"pascal","ada","cobol","fortran","perl"};
int i;
char *t;
for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
Compiler error: Lvalue required in function main
Array names are pointer constants. So it cannot be modified.
34) void main()
int i=5;
printf("%d",i++ + ++i);
Output Cannot be predicted exactly.
Side effects are involved in the evaluation of i
35) void main()
int i=5;
Compiler Error
The expression i+++++i is parsed as i ++ ++ + i which is an illegal combination of
36) #include<stdio.h>
int i=1,j=2;
case 1: printf("GOOD");
case j: printf("BAD");
Compiler Error: Constant expression required in function main.
The case statement can have only constant expressions (this implies that we cannot use
variable names directly so an error).
Enumerated types can be used in case statements.
37) main()
int i;
printf("%d",scanf("%d",&i)); // value 10 is given as input here
Scanf returns number of items successfully read and not 1/0. Here 10 is given as input
which should have been scanned successfully. So number of items read is 1.
38) #define f(g,g2) g##g2
int var12=100;
39) main()
int i=0;
for(;i++;printf("%d",i)) ;
before entering into the for loop the checking condition is "evaluated". Here it evaluates
to 0 (false) and comes out of the loop, and i is incremented (note the semicolon after
the for loop).
40) #include<stdio.h>
char s[]={'a','b','c','\n','c','\0'};
char *p,*str,*str1;
printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);
p is pointing to character '\n'.str1 is pointing to character 'a' ++*p meAnswer:"p is
pointing to '\n' and that is incremented by one." the ASCII value of '\n' is 10. then it is
incremented to 11. the value of ++*p is 11. ++*str1 meAnswer:"str1 is pointing to 'a'
that is incremented by 1 and it becomes 'b'. ASCII value of 'b' is 98. both 11 and 98 is
added and result is subtracted from 32.
i.e. (11+98-32)=77("M");
41) #include<stdio.h>
struct xx
int x=3;
char name[]="hello";
struct xx *s=malloc(sizeof(struct xx));
Compiler Error
Initialization should not be done for structure members inside the structure declaration
42) #include<stdio.h>
struct xx
int x;
struct yy
char s;
struct xx *p;
struct yy *q;
Compiler Error
in the end of nested structure yy a member have to be declared.
43) main()
extern int i;
Linker error: undefined symbol '_i'.
extern declaration specifies that the variable i is defined somewhere else. The compiler
passes the external variable to be resolved by the linker. So compiler doesn't find an
error. During linking the linker searches for the definition of i. Since it is not found the
linker flags an error.
44) main()
printf("%d", out);
int out=100;
Compiler error: undefined symbol out in function main.
The rule is that a variable is available for use from the point of declaration. Even though
a is a global variable, it is not available for main. Hence an error.
45) main()
extern out;
printf("%d", out);
int out=100;
This is the correct way of writing the previous program.
46) main()
void show()
printf("I'm the greatest");
Compier error: Type mismatch in redeclaration of show.
When the compiler sees the function show it doesn't know anything about it. So the
default return type (ie, int) is assumed. But when compiler sees the actual definition of
show mismatch occurs since it is declared as void. Hence the error.
The solutions are as follows:
1. declare void show() in main() .
2. define show() before main().
3. declare extern void show() before the use of show().
47) main( )
int a[2][3][2] = {{{2,4},{7,8},{3,4}},{{2,2},{2,3},{3,4}}};
printf(“%u %u %u %d \n”,a,*a,**a,***a);
printf(“%u %u %u %d \n”,a+1,*a+1,**a+1,***a+1);
100, 100, 100, 2
114, 104, 102, 3
The given array is a 3-D one. It can also be viewed as a 1-D array.
2 4 7 8 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 4
100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122
thus, for the first printf statement a, *a, **a give address of first element . since the
indirection ***a gives the value. Hence, the first line of the output.
for the second printf a+1 increases in the third dimension thus points to value at 114,
*a+1 increments in second dimension thus points to 104, **a +1 increments the first
dimension thus points to 102 and ***a+1 first gets the value at first location and then
increments it by 1. Hence, the output.
48) main( )
int a[ ] = {10,20,30,40,50},j,*p;
for(j=0; j<5; j++)
printf(“%d” ,*a);
p = a;
for(j=0; j<5; j++)
printf(“%d ” ,*p);
Compiler error: lvalue required.
Error is in line with statement a++. The operand must be an lvalue and may be of any
of scalar type for the any operator, array name only when subscripted is an lvalue.
Simply array name is a non-modifiable lvalue.
49) main( )
static int a[ ] = {0,1,2,3,4};
int *p[ ] = {a,a+1,a+2,a+3,a+4};
int **ptr = p;
printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr);
printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr);
printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr);
printf(“\n %d %d %d”, ptr-p, *ptr-a, **ptr);
Let us consider the array and the two pointers with some address
0 1 2 3 4
100 102 104 106 108
100 102 104 106 108
1000 1002 1004 1006 1008
After execution of the instruction ptr++ value in ptr becomes 1002, if scaling factor for
integer is 2 bytes. Now ptr – p is value in ptr – starting location of array p, (1002 –
1000) / (scaling factor) = 1, *ptr – a = value at address pointed by ptr – starting value
of array a, 1002 has a value 102 so the value is (102 – 100)/(scaling factor) = 1, **ptr
is the value stored in the location pointed by the pointer of ptr = value pointed by value
pointed by 1002 = value pointed by 102 = 1. Hence the output of the firs printf is 1, 1,
After execution of *ptr++ increments value of the value in ptr by scaling factor, so it
becomes1004. Hence, the outputs for the second printf are ptr – p = 2, *ptr – a = 2,
**ptr = 2.
After execution of *++ptr increments value of the value in ptr by scaling factor, so it
becomes1004. Hence, the outputs for the third printf are ptr – p = 3, *ptr – a = 3, **ptr
= 3.
After execution of ++*ptr value in ptr remains the same, the value pointed by the value
is incremented by the scaling factor. So the value in array p at location 1006 changes
from 106 10 108,. Hence, the outputs for the fourth printf are ptr – p = 1006 – 1000 =
3, *ptr – a = 108 – 100 = 4, **ptr = 4.
50) main( )
char *q;
int j;
for (j=0; j<3; j++) scanf(“%s” ,(q+j));
for (j=0; j<3; j++) printf(“%c” ,*(q+j));
for (j=0; j<3; j++) printf(“%s” ,(q+j));
Here we have only one pointer to type char and since we take input in the same pointer
thus we keep writing over in the same location, each time shifting the pointer value by
1. Suppose the inputs are MOUSE, TRACK and VIRTUAL. Then for the first input
suppose the pointer starts at location 100 then the input one is stored as
M O U S E \0
When the second input is given the pointer is incremented as j value becomes 1, so the
input is filled in memory starting from 101.
M T R A C K \0
The third input starts filling from the location 102
M T V I R T U A L \0
This is the final value stored .
The first printf prints the values at the position q, q+1 and q+2 = M T V
The second printf prints three strings starting from locations q, q+1, q+2
51) main( )
void *vp;
char ch = ‘g’, *cp = “goofy”;
int j = 20;
vp = &ch;
printf(“%c”, *(char *)vp);
vp = &j;
printf(“%d”,*(int *)vp);
vp = cp;
printf(“%s”,(char *)vp + 3);
Since a void pointer is used it can be type casted to any other type pointer. vp = &ch
stores address of char ch and the next statement prints the value stored in vp after type
casting it to the proper data type pointer. the output is ‘g’. Similarly the output from
second printf is ‘20’. The third printf statement type casts it to print the string from the
4th value hence the output is ‘fy’.
52) main ( )
static char *s[ ] = {“black”, “white”, “yellow”, “violet”};
char **ptr[ ] = {s+3, s+2, s+1, s}, ***p;
p = ptr;
printf(“%s”,*--*++p + 3);
In this problem we have an array of char pointers pointing to start of 4 strings. Then we
have ptr which is a pointer to a pointer of type char and a variable p which is a pointer
to a pointer to a pointer of type char. p hold the initial value of ptr, i.e. p = s+3. The
next statement increment value in p by 1 , thus now value of p = s+2. In the printf
statement the expression is evaluated *++p causes gets value s+1 then the pre
decrement is executed and we get s+1 – 1 = s . the indirection operator now gets the
value from the array of s and adds 3 to the starting address. The string is printed
starting from this position. Thus, the output is ‘ck’.
53) main()
int i, n;
char *x = “girl”;
n = strlen(x);
*x = x[n];
for(i=0; i<n; ++i)
(blank space)
Here a string (a pointer to char) is initialized with a value “girl”. The strlen function
returns the length of the string, thus n has a value 4. The next statement assigns value
at the nth location (‘\0’) to the first location. Now the string becomes “\0irl” . Now the
printf statement prints the string after each iteration it increments it starting position.
Loop starts from 0 to 4. The first time x[0] = ‘\0’ hence it prints nothing and pointer
value is incremented. The second time it prints from x[1] i.e “irl” and the third time it
prints “rl” and the last time it prints “l” and the loop terminates.
54) int i,j;
Runtime error: Abnormal program termination.
assert failed (i<5), <file name>,<line number>
asserts are used during debugging to make sure that certain conditions are satisfied. If
assertion fails, the program will terminate reporting the same. After debugging use,
#undef NDEBUG
and this will disable all the assertions from the source code. Assertion
is a good debugging tool to make use of.
55) main()
int i=-1;
printf("i = %d, +i = %d \n",i,+i);
i = -1, +i = -1
Unary + is the only dummy operator in C. Where-ever it comes you can just ignore it
just because it has no effect in the expressions (hence the name dummy operator).
56) What are the files which are automatically opened when a C file is executed?
stdin, stdout, stderr (standard input,standard output,standard error).
57) what will be the position of the file marker?
a: fseek(ptr,0,SEEK_SET);
b: fseek(ptr,0,SEEK_CUR);
Answer :
a: The SEEK_SET sets the file position marker to the starting of the file.
b: The SEEK_CUR sets the file position marker to the current position
of the file.
58) main()
char name[10],s[12];
scanf(" \"%[^\"]\"",s);
How scanf will execute?
First it checks for the leading white space and discards it.Then it matches with a
quotation mark and then it reads all character upto another quotation mark.
59) What is the problem with the following code segment?
while ((fgets(receiving array,50,file_ptr)) != EOF)
Answer & Explanation:
fgets returns a pointer. So the correct end of file check is checking for != NULL.
60) main()
Runtime error : Stack overflow.
main function calls itself again and again. Each time the function is called its return
address is stored in the call stack. Since there is no condition to terminate the function
call, the call stack overflows at runtime. So it terminates the program and results in an
61) main()
char *cptr,c;
void *vptr,v;
c=10; v=0;
cptr=&c; vptr=&v;
Compiler error (at line number 4): size of v is Unknown.
You can create a variable of type void * but not of type void, since void is an empty
type. In the second line you are creating variable vptr of type void * and v of type void
hence an error.
62) main()
char *str1="abcd";
char str2[]="abcd";
printf("%d %d %d",sizeof(str1),sizeof(str2),sizeof("abcd"));
2 5 5
In first sizeof, str1 is a character pointer so it gives you the size of the pointer variable.
In second sizeof the name str2 indicates the name of the array whose size is 5
(including the '\0' termination character). The third sizeof is similar to the second one.
63) main()
char not;
! is a logical operator. In C the value 0 is considered to be the boolean value FALSE, and
any non-zero value is considered to be the boolean value TRUE. Here 2 is a non-zero
value so TRUE. !TRUE is FALSE (0) so it prints 0.
64) #define FALSE -1
#define TRUE 1
#define NULL 0
main() {
else if(FALSE)
The input program to the compiler after processing by the preprocessor is,
else if(-1)
Preprocessor doesn't replace the values given inside the double quotes. The check by if
condition is boolean value false so it goes to else. In second if -1 is boolean value true
hence "TRUE" is printed.
65) main()
int k=1;
printf("%d==1 is ""%s",k,k==1?"TRUE":"FALSE");
1==1 is TRUE
When two strings are placed together (or separated by white-space) they are
concatenated (this is called as "stringization" operation). So the string is as if it is given
as "%d==1 is %s". The conditional operator( ?: ) evaluates to "TRUE".
66) main()
int y;
scanf("%d",&y); // input given is 2000
if( (y%4==0 && y%100 != 0) || y%100 == 0 )
printf("%d is a leap year");
printf("%d is not a leap year");
2000 is a leap year
An ordinary program to check if leap year or not.
67) #define max 5
#define int arr1[max]
typedef char arr2[max];
arr1 list={0,1,2,3,4};
arr2 name="name";
printf("%d %s",list[0],name);
Compiler error (in the line arr1 list = {0,1,2,3,4})
arr2 is declared of type array of size 5 of characters. So it can be used to declare the
variable name of the type arr2. But it is not the case of arr1. Hence an error.
Rule of Thumb:
#defines are used for textual replacement whereas typedefs are used for declaring new
68) int i=10;
extern int i;
int i=20;
const volatile unsigned i=30;
'{' introduces new block and thus new scope. In the innermost block i is declared as,
const volatile unsigned
which is a valid declaration. i is assumed of type int. So printf prints 30. In the next
block, i has value 20 and so printf prints 20. In the outermost block, i is declared as
extern, so no storage space is allocated for it. After compilation is over the linker
resolves it to global variable i (since it is the only variable visible there). So it prints i's
value as 10.
69) main()
int *j;
int i=10;
The variable i is a block level variable and the visibility is inside that block only. But the
lifetime of i is lifetime of the function so it lives upto the exit of main function. Since the
i is still allocated space, *j prints the value stored in i since j points i.
70) main()
int i=-1;
printf("i = %d, -i = %d \n",i,-i);
i = -1, -i = 1
-i is executed and this execution doesn't affect the value of i. In printf first you just print
the value of i. After that the value of the expression -i = -(-1) is printed.
71) #include<stdio.h>
const int i=4;
float j;
j = ++i;
printf("%d %f", i,++j);
Compiler error
i is a constant. you cannot change the value of constant
72) #include<stdio.h>
int a[2][2][2] = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };
int *p,*q;
p=&a[2][2][2] you declare only two 2D arrays. but you are trying to access the third
2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of
a is assigned integer pointer. now q is pointing to starting address of a.if you print *q
meAnswer:it will print first element of 3D array.
73) #include<stdio.h>
register i=5;
char j[]= "hello";
printf("%s %d",j,i);
hello 5
if you declare i as register compiler will treat it as ordinary integer and it will take
integer value. i value may be stored either in register or in memory.
74) main()
int i=5,j=6,z;
the expression i+++j is treated as (i++ + j)
76) struct aaa{
struct aaa *prev;
int i;
struct aaa *next;
struct aaa abc,def,ghi,jkl;
int x=100;
above all statements form a double circular linked list;
this one points to "ghi" node the value of at particular node is 2.
77) struct point
int x;
int y;
struct point origin,*pp;
printf("origin is(%d%d)\n",(*pp).x,(*pp).y);
printf("origin is (%d%d)\n",pp->x,pp->y);
origin is(0,0)
origin is(0,0)
pp is a pointer to structure. we can access the elements of the structure either with
arrow mark or with indirection operator.
Since structure point is globally declared x & y are initialized as zeroes
78) main()
int i=_l_abc(10);
int _l_abc(int i)
return(i++) it will first return i and then increments. i.e. 10 will be returned.
79) main()
char *p;
int *q;
long *r;
++ operator when applied to pointers increments address according to their
corresponding data-types.
80) main()
char c=' ',x,convert(z);
if((c>='a') && (c<='z'))
return z-32;
Compiler error
declaration of convert and format of getc() are wrong.
81) main(int argc, char **argv)
printf("enter the character");
int num1,num2;
return num1+num2;
Compiler error.
argv[1] & argv[2] are strings. They are passed to the function sum without converting it
to integer values.
82) # include <stdio.h>
int one_d[]={1,2,3};
int *ptr;
garbage value
ptr pointer is pointing to out of the array range of one_d.
83) # include<stdio.h>
aaa() {
int (*ptr[3])();
ptr is array of pointers to functions of return type int.ptr[0] is assigned to address of the
function aaa. Similarly ptr[1] and ptr[2] for bbb and ccc respectively. ptr[2]() is in effect
of writing ccc(), since ptr[2] points to ccc.
85) #include<stdio.h>
FILE *ptr;
char i;
contents of zzz.c followed by an infinite loop
The condition is checked against EOF, it should be checked against NULL.
86) main()
int i =0;j=0;
if(i && j++)
The value of i is 0. Since this information is enough to determine the truth value of the
boolean expression. So the statement following the if statement is not executed. The
values of i and j remain unchanged and get printed.
87) main()
int i;
i = abc();
_AX = 1000;
Normally the return value from the function is through the information from the
accumulator. Here _AH is the pseudo global variable denoting the accumulator. Hence,
the value of the accumulator is set 1000 so the function returns value 1000.
88) int i;
int t;
for ( t=4;scanf("%d",&i)-t;printf("%d\n",i))
// If the inputs are 0,1,2,3 find the o/p
Let us assume some x= scanf("%d",&i)-t the values during execution
will be,
t i x
4 0 -4
3 1 -2
2 2 0
89) main(){
int a= 0;int b = 20;char x =1;char y =10;
The comma operator has associativity from left to right. Only the rightmost value is
returned and the other values are evaluated and ignored. Thus the value of last variable
y is returned to check in if. Since it is a non zero value if becomes true so, "hello" will be
90) main(){
unsigned int i;
printf("c aptitude");
i is an unsigned integer. It is compared with a signed value. Since the both types doesn't
match, signed is promoted to unsigned value. The unsigned equivalent of -2 is a huge
value so condition becomes false and control comes out of the loop.
91) In the following pgm add a stmt in the function fun such that the address of
'a' gets stored in 'j'.
int * j;
void fun(int **);
void fun(int **k) {
int a =0;
/* add a stmt here*/
*k = &a
The argument of the function is a pointer to a pointer.
92) What are the following notations of defining functions known as?
i. int abc(int a,float b)
/* some code */
ii. int abc(a,b)
int a; float b;
/* some code*/
i. ANSI C notation
ii. Kernighan & Ritche notation
93) main()
char *p;
The pointer points to % since it is incremented twice and again decremented by 2, it
points to '%d\n' and 300 is printed.
94) main(){
char a[100];
abc(char a[]){
The base address is modified only in function and as a result a points to 'b' then after
incrementing to 'c' so bc will be printed.
95) func(a,b)
int a,b;
return( a= (a==b) );
int process(),func();
printf("The value of process is %d !\n ",process(func,3,6));
int (*pf) ();
int val1,val2;
return((*pf) (val1,val2));
The value if process is 0 !
The function 'process' has 3 parameters - 1, a pointer to another function 2 and 3,
integers. When this function is invoked from main, the following substitutions for formal
parameters take place: func for pf, 3 for val1 and 6 for val2. This function returns the
result of the operation performed by the function 'func'. The function func has two
integer parameters. The formal parameters are substituted as 3 for a and 6 for b. since
3 is not equal to 6, a==b returns 0. therefore the function returns 0 which in turn is
returned by the function 'process'.
96) void main()
static int i=5;
printf("%d ",i);
0 0 0 0
The variable "I" is declared as static, hence memory for I will be allocated for only once,
as it encounters the statement. The function main() will be called recursively unless I becomes
equal to 0, and since main() is recursively called, so the value of static I ie., 0 will be printed
every time the control is returned.
97) void main()
int k=ret(sizeof(float));
printf("\n here value is %d",++k);
int ret(int ret)
ret += 2.5;
Here value is 7
The int ret(int ret), ie., the function name and the argument name can be the same.
Firstly, the function ret() is called in which the sizeof(float) ie., 4 is passed, after the
first expression the value in ret will be 6, as ret is integer hence the value stored in ret will have
implicit type conversion from float to int. The ret is returned in main() it is printed after and
98) void main()
char a[]="12345\0";
int i=strlen(a);
printf("here in 3 %d\n",++i);
here in 3 6
The char array 'a' will hold the initialized string, whose length will be counted from 0 till
the null character. Hence the 'I' will hold the value equal to 5, after the pre-increment in the
printf statement, the 6 will be printed.
99) void main()
unsigned giveit=-1;
int gotit;
printf("%u ",++giveit);
printf("%u \n",gotit=--giveit);
0 65535
100) void main()
int i;
char a[]="\0";
printf("Ok here \n");
printf("Forget it\n");
Ok here
Printf will return how many characters does it print. Hence printing a null
character returns 1 which makes the if statement true, thus "Ok here" is
101) void main()
void *v;
int integer=2;
int *i=&integer;
Compiler Error. We cannot apply indirection on type void*.
Void pointer is a generic pointer type. No pointer arithmetic can be done on it. Void
pointers are normally used for,
1. Passing generic pointers to functions and returning such pointers.
2. As a intermediate pointer type.
3. Used when the exact pointer type will be known at a later point of
102) void main()
int i=i++,j=j++,k=k++;
Garbage values.
An identifier is available to use in program code from the point of its declaration.
So expressions such as i = i++ are valid statements. The i, j and k are automatic
variables and so they contain some garbage value. Garbage in is garbage out (GIGO).
103) void main()
static int i=i++, j=j++, k=k++;
printf(“i = %d j = %d k = %d”, i, j, k);
i = 1 j = 1 k = 1
Since static variables are initialized to zero by default.
104) void main()
Garbage values
The inner printf executes first to print some garbage value. The printf returns no of
characters printed and this value also cannot be predicted. Still the outer printf prints
something and so returns a non-zero value. So it encounters the break statement and
comes out of the while statement.
104) main()
unsigned int i=10;
printf("%u ",i);
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 65535 65534…..
Since i is an unsigned integer it can never become negative. So the expression i-- >=0
will always be true, leading to an infinite loop.
105) #include<conio.h>
int x,y=2,z,a;
if(x=y%2) z=2;
printf("%d %d ",z,x);
Garbage-value 0
The value of y%2 is 0. This value is assigned to x. The condition reduces to if (x) or in
other words if(0) and so z goes uninitialized.
Thumb Rule: Check all control paths to write bug free code.
106) main()
int a[10];
*a and -*a cancels out. The result is as simple as 1 + 3 = 4 !
107) #define prod(a,b) a*b
int x=3,y=4;
The macro expands and evaluates to as:
x+2*y-1 => x+(2*y)-1 => 10
108) main()
unsigned int i=65000;
Note the semicolon after the while statement. When the value of i becomes 0 it comes
out of while loop. Due to post-increment on i the value of i while printing is 1.
109) main()
int i=0;
Unary + is the only dummy operator in C. So it has no effect on the expression and now
the while loop is, while(i--!=0) which is false and so breaks out of while loop. The value
–1 is printed due to the post-decrement operator.
113) main()
float f=5,g=10;
Line no 5: Error: Lvalue required
Line no 6: Cannot apply leftshift to float
Line no 7: Cannot apply mod to float
Enumeration constants cannot be modified, so you cannot apply ++.
Bit-wise operators and % operators cannot be applied on float values.
fmod() is to find the modulus values for floats as % operator is for ints.
110) main()
int i=10;
void pascal f(int,int,int);
printf(" %d",i);
void pascal f(integer :i,integer:j,integer :k)
Compiler error: unknown type integer
Compiler error: undeclared function write
Pascal keyword doesn’t mean that pascal code can be used. It means that the function
follows Pascal argument passing mechanism in calling the functions.
111) void pascal f(int i,int j,int k)
printf(“%d %d %d”,i, j, k);
void cdecl f(int i,int j,int k)
printf(“%d %d %d”,i, j, k);
int i=10;
printf(" %d\n",i);
printf(" %d",i);
10 11 12 13
12 11 10 13
Pascal argument passing mechanism forces the arguments to be called from left to right.
cdecl is the normal C argument passing mechanism where the arguments are passed from right
to left.
112). What is the output of the program given below
signed char i=0;
for(;i>=0;i++) ;
Notice the semicolon at the end of the for loop. THe initial value of the i is set
to 0. The inner loop executes to increment the value from 0 to 127 (the positive
range of char) and then it rotates to the negative value of -128. The condition
in the for loop fails and so comes out of the for loop. It prints the current value
of i that is -128.
113) main()
unsigned char i=0;
for(;i>=0;i++) ;
infinite loop
The difference between the previous question and this one is that the char is declared to
be unsigned. So the i++ can never yield negative value and i>=0 never becomes false so that it
can come out of the for loop.
114) main()
char i=0;
for(;i>=0;i++) ;
Behavior is implementation dependent.
The detail if the char is signed/unsigned by default is implementation
dependent. If the implementation treats the char to be signed by default the program
will print –128 and terminate. On the other hand if it considers char to be unsigned by
default, it goes to infinite loop.
You can write programs that have implementation dependent behavior. But
dont write programs that depend on such behavior.
115) Is the following statement a declaration/definition. Find what does it mean?
int (*x)[10];
x is a pointer to array of(size 10) integers.
Apply clock-wise rule to find the meaning of this definition.
116). What is the output for the program given below
typedef enum errorType{warning, error, exception,}error;
error g1;
Compiler error: Multiple declaration for error
The name error is used in the two meanings. One means that it is a enumerator
constant with value 1. The another use is that it is a type name (due to typedef) for
enum errorType. Given a situation the compiler cannot distinguish the meaning of error
to know in what sense the error is used:
error g1;
// which error it refers in each case?
When the compiler can distinguish between usages then it will not issue error
(in pure technical terms, names can only be overloaded in different namespaces).
Note: the extra comma in the declaration,
enum errorType{warning, error, exception,}
is not an error. An extra comma is valid and is provided just for programmer’s
117) typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;
error g1;
g1.error =1;
The three usages of name errors can be distinguishable by the compiler at any instance,
so valid (they are in different namespaces).
Typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;
This error can be used only by preceding the error by struct kayword as in:
struct error someError;
typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;
This can be used only after . (dot) or -> (arrow) operator preceded by the variable name as in :
g1.error =1;
typedef struct error{int warning, error, exception;}error;
This can be used to define variables without using the preceding struct keyword as in:
error g1;
Since the compiler can perfectly distinguish between these three usages, it is perfectly legal and
This code is given here to just explain the concept behind. In real programming don’t
use such overloading of names. It reduces the readability of the code. Possible doesn’t mean that
we should use it!
118) #ifdef something
int some=0;
int thing = 0;
printf("%d %d\n", some ,thing);
Compiler error : undefined symbol some
This is a very simple example for conditional compilation. The name something
is not already known to the compiler making the declaration
int some = 0;
effectively removed from the source code.
119) #if something == 0
int some=0;
int thing = 0;
printf("%d %d\n", some ,thing);
0 0
This code is to show that preprocessor expressions are not the same as the
ordinary expressions. If a name is not known the preprocessor treats it to be
equal to zero.
120). What is the output for the following program
int arr2D[3][3];
printf("%d\n", ((arr2D==* arr2D)&&(* arr2D == arr2D[0])) );
This is due to the close relation between the arrays and pointers. N dimensional
arrays are made up of (N-1) dimensional arrays.
arr2D is made up of a 3 single arrays that contains 3 integers each .
The name arr2D refers to the beginning of all the 3 arrays. *arr2D refers to the
start of the first 1D array (of 3 integers) that is the same address as arr2D. So
the expression (arr2D == *arr2D) is true (1).
Similarly, *arr2D is nothing but *(arr2D + 0), adding a zero doesn’t change the
value/meaning. Again arr2D[0] is the another way of telling *(arr2D + 0). So
the expression (*(arr2D + 0) == arr2D[0]) is true (1).
Since both parts of the expression evaluates to true the result is true(1) and
the same is printed.
121) void main()
if(~0 == (unsigned int)-1)
printf(“You can answer this if you know how values are represented in memory”);
You can answer this if you know how values are represented in memory
~ (tilde operator or bit-wise negation operator) operates on 0 to produce all
ones to fill the space for an integer. –1 is represented in unsigned value as all
1’s and so both are equal.
122) int swap(int *a,int *b)
int x=10,y=20;
printf("x= %d y = %d\n",x,y);
x = 20 y = 10
This is one way of swapping two values. Simple checking will help understand this.
123) main()
char *p = “ayqm”;
124) main()
int i=5;
Compiler error: Lvalue required in function main
++i yields an rvalue. For postfix ++ to operate an lvalue is required.
125) main()
char *p = “ayqm”;
char c;
c = ++*p++;
There is no difference between the expression ++*(p++) and ++*p++.
Parenthesis just works as a visual clue for the reader to see which expression is
first evaluated.
int aaa() {printf(“Hi”);}
int bbb(){printf(“hello”);}
iny ccc(){printf(“bye”);}
int ( * ptr[3]) ();
ptr[0] = aaa;
ptr[1] = bbb;
ptr[2] =ccc;
int (* ptr[3])() says that ptr is an array of pointers to functions that takes no arguments
and returns the type int. By the assignment ptr[0] = aaa; it means that the first function
pointer in the array is initialized with the address of the function aaa. Similarly, the
other two array elements also get initialized with the addresses of the functions bbb and
ccc. Since ptr[2] contains the address of the function ccc, the call to the function ptr[2]
() is same as calling ccc(). So it results in printing "bye".
int i=5;
printf(“%d”,i=++i ==6);
The expression can be treated as i = (++i==6), because == is of higher precedence
than = operator. In the inner expression, ++i is equal to 6 yielding true(1). Hence the
128) main()
char p[ ]="%d\n";
p[1] = 'c';
Due to the assignment p[1] = ‘c’ the string becomes, “%c\n”. Since this string becomes
the format string for printf and ASCII value of 65 is ‘A’, the same gets printed.
129) void ( * abc( int, void ( *def) () ) ) ();
abc is a ptr to a function which takes 2 parameters .(a). an integer variable.(b). a
ptrto a funtion which returns void. the return type of the function is void.
Apply the clock-wise rule to find the result.
130) main()
while (strcmp(“some”,”some\0”))
printf(“Strings are not equal\n”);
No output
Ending the string constant with \0 explicitly makes no difference. So “some” and
“some\0” are equivalent. So, strcmp returns 0 (false) hence breaking out of the while
131) main()
char str1[] = {‘s’,’o’,’m’,’e’};
char str2[] = {‘s’,’o’,’m’,’e’,’\0’};
while (strcmp(str1,str2))
printf(“Strings are not equal\n”);
“Strings are not equal”
“Strings are not equal”
If a string constant is initialized explicitly with characters, ‘\0’ is not appended
automatically to the string. Since str1 doesn’t have null termination, it treats whatever
the values that are in the following positions as part of the string until it randomly
reaches a ‘\0’. So str1 and str2 are not the same, hence the result.
132) main()
int i = 3;
for (;i++=0;) printf(“%d”,i);
Compiler Error: Lvalue required.
As we know that increment operators return rvalues and hence it cannot
appear on the left hand side of an assignment operation.
133) void main()
int *mptr, *cptr;
mptr = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int));
int *cptr = (int*)calloc(sizeof(int),1);
garbage-value 0
The memory space allocated by malloc is uninitialized, whereas calloc returns the
allocated memory space initialized to zeros.
134) void main()
static int i;
printf(“%d”, i);
Since i is static it is initialized to 0. Inside the while loop the conditional operator
evaluates to false, executing i--. This continues till the integer value rotates to positive
value (32767). The while condition becomes false and hence, comes out of the while
loop, printing the i value.
135) main()
int i=10,j=20;
j = i, j?(i,j)?i:j:j;
printf("%d %d",i,j);
10 10
The Ternary operator ( ? : ) is equivalent for if-then-else statement. So the question can
be written as:
j = i;
j = j;
j = j;
136) 1. const char *a;
2. char* const a;
3. char const *a;
-Differentiate the above declarations.
1. 'const' applies to char * rather than 'a' ( pointer to a constant char )
*a='F' : illegal
a="Hi" : legal
2. 'const' applies to 'a' rather than to the value of a (constant pointer to char )
*a='F' : legal
a="Hi" : illegal
3. Same as 1.
137) main()
int i=5,j=10;
printf("%d %d",i,j);
1 10
The expression can be written as i=(i&=(j&&10)); The inner expression (j&&10)
evaluates to 1 because j==10. i is 5. i = 5&1 is 1. Hence the result.
138) main()
int i=4,j=7;
j = j || i++ && printf("YOU CAN");
printf("%d %d", i, j);
4 1
The boolean expression needs to be evaluated only till the truth value of the expression
is not known. j is not equal to zero itself means that the expression’s truth value is 1.
Because it is followed by || and true || (anything) => true where (anything) will not be
evaluated. So the remaining expression is not evaluated and so the value of i remains
the same.
Similarly when && operator is involved in an expression, when any of the operands
become false, the whole expression’s truth value becomes false and hence the
remaining expression will not be evaluated.
false && (anything) => false where (anything) will not be evaluated.
139) main()
register int a=2;
printf("Address of a = %d",&a);
printf("Value of a = %d",a);
Compier Error: '&' on register variable
Rule to Remember:
& (address of ) operator cannot be applied on register variables.
140) main()
float i=1.5;
case 1: printf("1");
case 2: printf("2");
default : printf("0");
Compiler Error: switch expression not integral
Switch statements can be applied only to integral types.
141) main()
extern i;
int i=20;
Linker Error : Unresolved external symbol i
The identifier i is available in the inner block and so using extern has no use in resolving
142) main()
int a=2,*f1,*f2;
printf("\n%d %d %d",a,*f1,*f2);
16 16 16
f1 and f2 both refer to the same memory location a. So changes through f1 and f2
ultimately affects only the value of a.
143) main()
char *p="GOOD";
char a[ ]="GOOD";
printf("\n sizeof(p) = %d, sizeof(*p) = %d, strlen(p) = %d", sizeof(p), sizeof(*p),
printf("\n sizeof(a) = %d, strlen(a) = %d", sizeof(a), strlen(a));
sizeof(p) = 2, sizeof(*p) = 1, strlen(p) = 4
sizeof(a) = 5, strlen(a) = 4
sizeof(p) => sizeof(char*) => 2
sizeof(*p) => sizeof(char) => 1
sizeof(a) => size of the character array => 5
When sizeof operator is applied to an array it returns the sizeof the array and it is not
the same as the sizeof the pointer variable. Here the sizeof(a) where a is the character
array and the size of the array is 5 because the space necessary for the terminating
NULL character should also be taken into account.
144) #define DIM( array, type) sizeof(array)/sizeof(type)
int arr[10];
printf(“The dimension of the array is %d”, DIM(arr, int));
The size of integer array of 10 elements is 10 * sizeof(int). The macro expands to
sizeof(arr)/sizeof(int) => 10 * sizeof(int) / sizeof(int) => 10.
145) int DIM(int array[])
return sizeof(array)/sizeof(int );
int arr[10];
printf(“The dimension of the array is %d”, DIM(arr));
Arrays cannot be passed to functions as arguments and only the pointers can be passed.
So the argument is equivalent to int * array (this is one of the very few places where []
and * usage are equivalent). The return statement becomes, sizeof(int *)/ sizeof(int)
that happens to be equal in this case.
146) main()
static int a[3][3]={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
int i,j;
static *p[]={a,a+1,a+2};
1 1 1 1
2 4 2 4
3 7 3 7
4 2 4 2
5 5 5 5
6 8 6 8
7 3 7 3
8 6 8 6
9 9 9 9
*(*(p+i)+j) is equivalent to p[i][j].
147) main()
void swap();
int x=10,y=8;
printf("x=%d y=%d",x,y);
void swap(int *a, int *b)
*a ^= *b, *b ^= *a, *a ^= *b;
x=10 y=8
Using ^ like this is a way to swap two variables without using a temporary variable and
that too in a single statement.
Inside main(), void swap(); means that swap is a function that may take any number of
arguments (not no arguments) and returns nothing. So this doesn’t issue a compiler
error by the call swap(&x,&y); that has two arguments.
This convention is historically due to pre-ANSI style (referred to as Kernighan and
Ritchie style) style of function declaration. In that style, the swap function will be
defined as follows,
void swap()
int *a, int *b
*a ^= *b, *b ^= *a, *a ^= *b;
where the arguments follow the (). So naturally the declaration for swap will look like,
void swap() which means the swap can take any number of arguments.
148) main()
int i = 257;
int *iPtr = &i;
printf("%d %d", *((char*)iPtr), *((char*)iPtr+1) );
1 1
The integer value 257 is stored in the memory as, 00000001 00000001, so the
individual bytes are taken by casting it to char * and get printed.
149) main()
int i = 258;
int *iPtr = &i;
printf("%d %d", *((char*)iPtr), *((char*)iPtr+1) );
2 1
The integer value 257 can be represented in binary as, 00000001 00000001. Remember
that the INTEL machines are ‘small-endian’ machines. Small-endian means that the
lower order bytes are stored in the higher memory addresses and the higher order bytes
are stored in lower addresses. The integer value 258 is stored in memory as: 00000001
150) main()
int i=300;
char *ptr = &i;
The integer value 300 in binary notation is: 00000001 00101100. It is stored in
memory (small-endian) as: 00101100 00000001. Result of the expression *++ptr = 2
makes the memory representation as: 00101100 00000010. So the integer
corresponding to it is 00000010 00101100 => 556.
151) #include <stdio.h>
char * str = "hello";
char * ptr = str;
char least = 127;
while (*ptr++)
least = (*ptr<least ) ?*ptr :least;
After ‘ptr’ reaches the end of the string the value pointed by ‘str’ is ‘\0’. So the value of
‘str’ is less than that of ‘least’. So the value of ‘least’ finally is 0.
152) Declare an array of N pointers to functions returning pointers to functions returning pointers to
(char*(*)( )) (*ptr[N])( );
153) main()
struct student
char name[30];
struct date dob;
struct date
int day,month,year;
scanf("%s%d%d%d", stud.rollno, &student.dob.day, &student.dob.month,
Compiler Error: Undefined structure date
Inside the struct definition of ‘student’ the member of type struct date is given. The
compiler doesn’t have the definition of date structure (forward reference is not allowed
in C in this case) so it issues an error.
154) main()
struct date;
struct student
char name[30];
struct date dob;
struct date
int day,month,year;
scanf("%s%d%d%d", stud.rollno, &student.dob.day, &student.dob.month,
Compiler Error: Undefined structure date
Only declaration of struct date is available inside the structure definition of ‘student’ but
to have a variable of type struct date the definition of the structure is required.
155) There were 10 records stored in “somefile.dat” but the following program printed 11 names.
What went wrong?
void main()
struct student
char name[30], rollno[6];
FILE *fp = fopen(“somefile.dat”,”r”);
fread(&stud, sizeof(stud), 1 , fp);
fread reads 10 records and prints the names successfully. It will return EOF
only when fread tries to read another record and fails reading EOF (and
returning EOF). So it prints the last record again. After this only the condition
feof(fp) becomes false, hence comes out of the while loop.
156) Is there any difference between the two declarations,
1. int foo(int *arr[]) and
2. int foo(int *arr[2])
Functions can only pass pointers and not arrays. The numbers that are allowed inside
the [] is just for more readability. So there is no difference between the two
157) What is the subtle error in the following code segment?
void fun(int n, int arr[])
int *p=0;
int i=0;
p = &arr[i];
*p = 0;
Answer & Explanation:
If the body of the loop never executes p is assigned no address. So p remains
NULL where *p =0 may result in problem (may rise to runtime error “NULL
pointer assignment” and terminate the program).
158) What is wrong with the following code?
int *foo()
int *s = malloc(sizeof(int)100);
assert(s != NULL);
return s;
Answer & Explanation:
assert macro should be used for debugging and finding out bugs. The check s != NULL is
for error/exception handling and for that assert shouldn’t be used. A plain if and the
corresponding remedy statement has to be given.
159) What is the hidden bug with the following statement?
assert(val++ != 0);
Answer & Explanation:
Assert macro is used for debugging and removed in release version. In assert, the
experssion involves side-effects. So the behavior of the code becomes different in case
of debug version and the release version thus leading to a subtle bug.
Rule to Remember:
Don’t use expressions that have side-effects in assert statements.
160) void main()
int *i = 0x400; // i points to the address 400
*i = 0; // set the value of memory location pointed by i;
Undefined behavior
The second statement results in undefined behavior because it points to some location
whose value may not be available for modification. This type of pointer in which the
non-availability of the implementation of the referenced location is known as 'incomplete
161) #define assert(cond) if(!(cond)) \
(fprintf(stderr, "assertion failed: %s, file %s, line %d \n",#cond,\
__FILE__,__LINE__), abort())
void main()
int i = 10;
assert(i < 100);
printf("This statement becomes else for if in assert macro");
No output
The else part in which the printf is there becomes the else for if in the assert macro. Hence
nothing is printed.
The solution is to use conditional operator instead of if statement,
#define assert(cond) ((cond)?(0): (fprintf (stderr, "assertion failed: \ %s, file %s, line %d
\n",#cond, __FILE__,__LINE__), abort()))
However this problem of “matching with nearest else” cannot be solved by the usual
method of placing the if statement inside a block like this,
#define assert(cond) { \
if(!(cond)) \
(fprintf(stderr, "assertion failed: %s, file %s, line %d \n",#cond,\
__FILE__,__LINE__), abort()) \
162) Is the following code legal?
struct a
int x;
struct a b;
Is it not legal for a structure to contain a member that is of the same
type as in this case. Because this will cause the structure declaration to be recursive
without end.
163) Is the following code legal?
struct a
int x;
struct a *b;
*b is a pointer to type struct a and so is legal. The compiler knows, the size of the
pointer to a structure even before the size of the structure
is determined(as you know the pointer to any type is of same size). This type of
structures is known as ‘self-referencing’ structure.
164) Is the following code legal?
typedef struct a
int x;
aType *b;
The typename aType is not known at the point of declaring the structure (forward
references are not made for typedefs).
165) Is the following code legal?
typedef struct a aType;
struct a
int x;
aType *b;
The typename aType is known at the point of declaring the structure, because it is
already typedefined.
166) Is the following code legal?
void main()
typedef struct a aType;
aType someVariable;
struct a
int x;
aType *b;
When the declaration,
typedef struct a aType;
is encountered body of struct a is not known. This is known as ‘incomplete types’.
167) void main()
printf(“sizeof (void *) = %d \n“, sizeof( void *));
printf(“sizeof (int *) = %d \n”, sizeof(int *));
printf(“sizeof (double *) = %d \n”, sizeof(double *));
printf(“sizeof(struct unknown *) = %d \n”, sizeof(struct unknown *));
Answer :
sizeof (void *) = 2
sizeof (int *) = 2
sizeof (double *) = 2
sizeof(struct unknown *) = 2
The pointer to any type is of same size.
168) char inputString[100] = {0};
To get string input from the keyboard which one of the following is better?
1) gets(inputString)
2) fgets(inputString, sizeof(inputString), fp)
Answer & Explanation:
The second one is better because gets(inputString) doesn't know the size of the string
passed and so, if a very big input (here, more than 100 chars) the charactes will be
written past the input string. When fgets is used with stdin performs the same operation
as gets but is safe.
169) Which version do you prefer of the following two,
1) printf(“%s”,str); // or the more curt one
2) printf(str);
Answer & Explanation:
Prefer the first one. If the str contains any format characters like %d then it will result
in a subtle bug.
170) void main()
int i=10, j=2;
int *ip= &i, *jp = &j;
int k = *ip/*jp;
Compiler Error: “Unexpected end of file in comment started in line 5”.
The programmer intended to divide two integers, but by the “maximum munch”
rule, the compiler treats the operator sequence / and * as /* which happens to
be the starting of comment. To force what is intended by the programmer,
int k = *ip/ *jp;
// give space explicity separating / and *
int k = *ip/(*jp);
// put braces to force the intention
will solve the problem.
171) void main()
char ch;
printf(“%c %d \n“, ch, ch);
Implementaion dependent
The char type may be signed or unsigned by default. If it is signed then ch++ is
executed after ch reaches 127 and rotates back to -128. Thus ch is always smaller than
172) Is this code legal?
int *ptr;
ptr = (int *) 0x400;
The pointer ptr will point at the integer in the memory location 0x400.
173) main()
char a[4]="HELLO";
Compiler error: Too many initializers
The array a is of size 4 but the string constant requires 6 bytes to get stored.
174) main()
char a[4]="HELL";
The character array has the memory just enough to hold the string “HELL” and doesnt
have enough space to store the terminating null character. So it prints the HELL
correctly and continues to print garbage values till it accidentally comes across a NULL
175) main()
int a=10,*j;
void *k;
printf("\n %u %u ",j,k);
Compiler error: Cannot increment a void pointer
Void pointers are generic pointers and they can be used only when the type is not
known and as an intermediate address storage type. No pointer arithmetic can be done
on it and you cannot apply indirection operator (*) on void pointers.
176) main()
extern int i;
{ int i=20;
const volatile unsigned i=30; printf("%d",i);
int i;
177) Printf can be implemented by using __________ list.
Variable length argument lists
178) char *someFun()
char *temp = “string constant";
return temp;
int main()
string constant
The program suffers no problem and gives the output correctly because the character constants
are stored in code/data area and not allocated in stack, so this doesn’t lead to dangling pointers.
179) char *someFun1()
char temp[ ] = “string";
return temp;
char *someFun2()
char temp[ ] = {‘s’, ‘t’,’r’,’i’,’n’,’g’};
return temp;
int main()
Garbage values.
Both the functions suffer from the problem of dangling pointers. In someFun1() temp is a
character array and so the space for it is allocated in heap and is initialized with character string “string”.
This is created dynamically as the function is called, so is also deleted dynamically on exiting the function
so the string data is not available in the calling function main() leading to print some garbage values. The
function someFun2() also suffers from the same problem but the problem can be easily identified in this
+ Aptitude and OOPS
Note : All the programs are tested under Turbo C++ 3.0, 4.5 and Microsoft VC++ 6.0 compilers.
It is assumed that,
 Programs run under Windows environment,
 The underlying machine is an x86 based system,
 Program is compiled using Turbo C/C++ compiler.
The program output may depend on the information based on this assumptions (for example
sizeof(int) == 2 may be assumed).
1) class Sample
int *ptr;
Sample(int i)
ptr = new int(i);
delete ptr;
void PrintVal()
cout << "The value is " << *ptr;
void SomeFunc(Sample x)
cout << "Say i am in someFunc " << endl;
int main()
Sample s1= 10;
Say i am in someFunc
Null pointer assignment(Run-time error)
As the object is passed by value to SomeFunc the destructor of the object is called when the
control returns from the function. So when PrintVal is called it meets up with ptr that has been freed.The
solution is to pass the Sample object by reference to SomeFunc:
void SomeFunc(Sample &x)
cout << "Say i am in someFunc " << endl;
because when we pass objects by refernece that object is not destroyed. while returning from the
2) Which is the parameter that is added to every non-static member function when it is called?
‘this’ pointer
C++ Aptitude
and OOPS
3) class base
int bval;
base(){ bval=0;}
class deri:public base
int dval;
deri(){ dval=1;}
void SomeFunc(base *arr,int size)
for(int i=0; i<size; i++,arr++)
int main()
base BaseArr[5];
deri DeriArr[5];
The function SomeFunc expects two arguments.The first one is a pointer to an array of base class
objects and the second one is the sizeof the array.The first call of someFunc calls it with an array of bae
objects, so it works correctly and prints the bval of all the objects. When Somefunc is called the second
time the argument passed is the pointeer to an array of derived class objects and not the array of base
class objects. But that is what the function expects to be sent. So the derived class pointer is promoted to
base class pointer and the address is sent to the function. SomeFunc() knows nothing about this and just
treats the pointer as an array of base class objects. So when arr++ is met, the size of base class object is
taken into consideration and is incremented by sizeof(int) bytes for bval (the deri class objects have bval
and dval as members and so is of size >= sizeof(int)+sizeof(int) ).
4) class base
void baseFun(){ cout<<"from base"<<endl;}
class deri:public base
void baseFun(){ cout<< "from derived"<<endl;}
void SomeFunc(base *baseObj)
int main()
base baseObject;
deri deriObject;
from base
from base
As we have seen in the previous case, SomeFunc expects a pointer to a base class. Since a
pointer to a derived class object is passed, it treats the argument only as a base class pointer and the
corresponding base function is called.
5) class base
virtual void baseFun(){ cout<<"from base"<<endl;}
class deri:public base
void baseFun(){ cout<< "from derived"<<endl;}
void SomeFunc(base *baseObj)
int main()
base baseObject;
deri deriObject;
from base
from derived
Remember that baseFunc is a virtual function. That means that it supports run-time
polymorphism. So the function corresponding to the derived class object is called.
void main()
int a, *pa, &ra;
pa = &a;
ra = a;
cout <<"a="<<a <<"*pa="<<*pa <<"ra"<<ra ;
Answer :
Compiler Error: 'ra',reference must be initialized
Explanation :
Pointers are different from references. One of the main
differences is that the pointers can be both initialized and assigned,
whereas references can only be initialized. So this code issues an error.
const int size = 5;
void print(int *ptr)
void print(int ptr[size])
void main()
int a[size] = {1,2,3,4,5};
int *b = new int(size);
Compiler Error : function 'void print(int *)' already has a body
Arrays cannot be passed to functions, only pointers (for arrays, base addresses)
can be passed. So the arguments int *ptr and int prt[size] have no difference
as function arguments. In other words, both the functoins have the same signature and
so cannot be overloaded.
class some{
cout<<"some's destructor"<<endl;
void main()
some s;
some's destructor
some's destructor
Destructors can be called explicitly. Here 's.~some()' explicitly calls the
destructor of 's'. When main() returns, destructor of s is called again,
hence the result.
#include <iostream.h>
class fig2d
int dim1;
int dim2;
fig2d() { dim1=5; dim2=6;}
virtual void operator<<(ostream & rhs);
void fig2d::operator<<(ostream &rhs)
rhs <<this->dim1<<" "<<this->dim2<<" ";
/*class fig3d : public fig2d
int dim3;
fig3d() { dim3=7;}
virtual void operator<<(ostream &rhs);
void fig3d::operator<<(ostream &rhs)
fig2d::operator <<(rhs);
void main()
fig2d obj1;
// fig3d obj2;
obj1 << cout;
// obj2 << cout;
Answer :
5 6
In this program, the << operator is overloaded with ostream as argument.
This enables the 'cout' to be present at the right-hand-side. Normally, 'cout'
is implemented as global function, but it doesn't mean that 'cout' is not possible
to be overloaded as member function.
Overloading << as virtual member function becomes handy when the class in which
it is overloaded is inherited, and this becomes available to be overrided. This is as opposed
to global friend functions, where friend's are not inherited.
class opOverload{
bool operator==(opOverload temp);
bool opOverload::operator==(opOverload temp){
if(*this == temp ){
cout<<"The both are same objects\n";
return true;
cout<<"The both are different\n";
return false;
void main(){
opOverload a1, a2;
a1= =a2;
Answer :
Runtime Error: Stack Overflow
Explanation :
Just like normal functions, operator functions can be called recursively. This program just
illustrates that point, by calling the operator == function recursively, leading to an infinite loop.
class complex{
double re;
double im;
complex() : re(1),im(0.5) {}
bool operator==(complex &rhs);
operator int(){}
bool complex::operator == (complex &rhs){
if((this->re == rhs.re) && (this->im == rhs.im))
return true;
return false;
int main(){
complex c1;
cout<< c1;
Answer : Garbage value
The programmer wishes to print the complex object using output
re-direction operator,which he has not defined for his lass.But the compiler instead of giving an error sees
the conversion function
and converts the user defined object to standard object and prints
some garbage value.
class complex{
double re;
double im;
complex() : re(0),im(0) {}
complex(double n) { re=n,im=n;};
complex(int m,int n) { re=m,im=n;}
void print() { cout<<re; cout<<im;}
void main(){
complex c3;
double i=5;
c3 = i;
Though no operator= function taking complex, double is defined, the double on the rhs is
converted into a temporary object using the single argument constructor taking double and assigned to
the lvalue.
void main()
int a, *pa, &ra;
pa = &a;
ra = a;
cout <<"a="<<a <<"*pa="<<*pa <<"ra"<<ra ;
Answer :
Compiler Error: 'ra',reference must be initialized
Explanation :
Pointers are different from references. One of the main
differences is that the pointers can be both initialized and assigned,
whereas references can only be initialized. So this code issues an error.
Try it Yourself
1) Determine the output of the 'C++' Codelet.
class base
public :
cout<<"base ";
class deri{
public : out()
cout<<"deri ";
void main()
{ deri dp[3];
base *bp = (base*)dp;
for (int i=0; i<3;i++)
2) Justify the use of virtual constructors and destructors in C++.
3) Each C++ object possesses the 4 member fns,(which can be declared by the programmer explicitly or
by the implementation if they are not available). What are those 4 functions?
4) What is wrong with this class declaration?
class something
char *str;
st = new char[10]; }
delete str;
5) Inheritance is also known as -------- relationship. Containership as ________ relationship.
6) When is it necessary to use member-wise initialization list (also known as header initialization list) in
7) Which is the only operator in C++ which can be overloaded but NOT inherited.
8) Is there anything wrong with this C++ class declaration?
class temp
int value1;
mutable int value2;
public :
void fun(int val)
((temp*) this)->value1 = 10;
value2 = 10;
1. What is a modifier?
A modifier, also called a modifying function is a member function that changes the value of at least
one data member. In other words, an operation that modifies the state of an object. Modifiers are also
known as ‘mutators’.
2. What is an accessor?
An accessor is a class operation that does not modify the state of an object. The accessor functions
need to be declared as const operations
3. Differentiate between a template class and class template.
Template class:
A generic definition or a parameterized class not instantiated until the client provides the needed
information. It’s jargon for plain templates.
Class template:
A class template specifies how individual classes can be constructed much like the way a class
specifies how individual objects can be constructed. It’s jargon for plain classes.
4. When does a name clash occur?
A name clash occurs when a name is defined in more than one place. For example., two different
class libraries could give two different classes the same name. If you try to use many class libraries at the
same time, there is a fair chance that you will be unable to compile or link the program because of name
5. Define namespace.
It is a feature in c++ to minimize name collisions in the global name space. This namespace
keyword assigns a distinct name to a library that allows other libraries to use the same identifier names
without creating any name collisions. Furthermore, the compiler uses the namespace signature for
differentiating the definitions.
6. What is the use of ‘using’ declaration.
A using declaration makes it possible to use a name from a namespace without the scope
7. What is an Iterator class?
A class that is used to traverse through the objects maintained by a container class. There are
five categories of iterators:
 input iterators,
 output iterators,
 forward iterators,
 bidirectional iterators,
 random access.
An iterator is an entity that gives access to the contents of a container object without violating
encapsulation constraints. Access to the contents is granted on a one-at-a-time basis in order. The order
can be storage order (as in lists and queues) or some arbitrary order (as in array indices) or according to
some ordering relation (as in an ordered binary tree). The iterator is a construct, which provides an
interface that, when called, yields either the next element in the container, or some value denoting the
fact that there are no more elements to examine. Iterators hide the details of access to and update of the
elements of a container class.
The simplest and safest iterators are those that permit read-only access to the contents of a
container class. The following code fragment shows how an iterator might appear in code:
cont_iter:=new cont_iterator();
while x/=none do
In this example, cont_iter is the name of the iterator. It is created on the first line by instantiation
of cont_iterator class, an iterator class defined to iterate over some container class, cont. Succesive
elements from the container are carried to x. The loop terminates when x is bound to some empty value.
(Here, none)In the middle of the loop, there is s(x) an operation on x, the current element from the
container. The next element of the container is obtained at the bottom of the loop.
9. List out some of the OODBMS available.
 GEMSTONE/OPAL of Gemstone systems.
 ONTOS of Ontos.
 Objectivity of Objectivity inc.
 Versant of Versant object technology.
 Object store of Object Design.
 ARDENT of ARDENT software.
 POET of POET software.
10. List out some of the object-oriented methodologies.
 Object Oriented Development (OOD) (Booch 1991,1994).
 Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOA/D) (Coad and Yourdon 1991).
 Object Modelling Techniques (OMT) (Rumbaugh 1991).
 Object Oriented Software Engineering (Objectory) (Jacobson 1992).
 Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) (Shlaer and Mellor 1992).
 The Fusion Method (Coleman 1991).
11. What is an incomplete type?
Incomplete types refers to pointers in which there is non availability of the implementation of the
referenced location or it points to some location whose value is not available for modification.
int *i=0x400 // i points to address 400
*i=0; //set the value of memory location pointed by i.
Incomplete types are otherwise called uninitialized pointers.
12. What is a dangling pointer?
A dangling pointer arises when you use the address of an object after its lifetime is over.
This may occur in situations like returning addresses of the automatic variables from a function or using
the address of the memory block after it is freed.
13. Differentiate between the message and method.
Message Method
Objects communicate by sending messages Provides response to a message.
to each other.
A message is sent to invoke a method. It is an implementation of an operation.
14. What is an adaptor class or Wrapper class?
A class that has no functionality of its own. Its member functions hide the use of a third party
software component or an object with the non-compatible interface or a non- object- oriented
15. What is a Null object?
It is an object of some class whose purpose is to indicate that a real object of that class does not
exist. One common use for a null object is a return value from a member function that is supposed to
return an object with some specified properties but cannot find such an object.
16. What is class invariant?
A class invariant is a condition that defines all valid states for an object. It is a logical condition to
ensure the correct working of a class. Class invariants must hold when an object is created, and they must
be preserved under all operations of the class. In particular all class invariants are both preconditions and
post-conditions for all operations or member functions of the class.
17. What do you mean by Stack unwinding?
It is a process during exception handling when the destructor is called for all local objects
between the place where the exception was thrown and where it is caught.
18. Define precondition and post-condition to a member function.
A precondition is a condition that must be true on entry to a member function. A class is used
correctly if preconditions are never false. An operation is not responsible for doing anything sensible if its
precondition fails to hold.
For example, the interface invariants of stack class say nothing about pushing yet another
element on a stack that is already full. We say that isful() is a precondition of the push operation.
A post-condition is a condition that must be true on exit from a member function if the
precondition was valid on entry to that function. A class is implemented correctly if post-conditions are
never false.
For example, after pushing an element on the stack, we know that isempty() must necessarily
hold. This is a post-condition of the push operation.
19. What are the conditions that have to be met for a condition to be an invariant of the class?
 The condition should hold at the end of every constructor.
 The condition should hold at the end of every mutator(non-const) operation.
20. What are proxy objects?
Objects that stand for other objects are called proxy objects or surrogates.
template<class T>
class Array2D
class Array1D
T& operator[] (int index);
const T& operator[] (int index) const;
Array1D operator[] (int index);
const Array1D operator[] (int index) const;
The following then becomes legal:
cout<<data[3][6]; // fine
Here data[3] yields an Array1D object and the operator [] invocation on that object yields the
float in position(3,6) of the original two dimensional array. Clients of the Array2D class need not be aware
of the presence of the Array1D class. Objects of this latter class stand for one-dimensional array objects
that, conceptually, do not exist for clients of Array2D. Such clients program as if they were using real,
live, two-dimensional arrays. Each Array1D object stands for a one-dimensional array that is absent from
a conceptual model used by the clients of Array2D. In the above example, Array1D is a proxy class. Its
instances stand for one-dimensional arrays that, conceptually, do not exist.
21. Name some pure object oriented languages.
 Smalltalk,
 Java,
 Eiffel,
 Sather.
22. Name the operators that cannot be overloaded.
sizeof . .* .-> :: ?:
23. What is a node class?
A node class is a class that,
 relies on the base class for services and implementation,
 provides a wider interface to te users than its base class,
 relies primarily on virtual functions in its public interface
 depends on all its direct and indirect base class
 can be understood only in the context of the base class
 can be used as base for further derivation
 can be used to create objects.
A node class is a class that has added new services or functionality beyond the services inherited from its
base class.
24. What is an orthogonal base class?
If two base classes have no overlapping methods or data they are said to be independent of, or
orthogonal to each other. Orthogonal in the sense means that two classes operate in different dimensions
and do not interfere with each other in any way. The same derived class may inherit such classes with no
25. What is a container class? What are the types of container classes?
A container class is a class that is used to hold objects in memory or external storage. A
container class acts as a generic holder. A container class has a predefined behavior and a well-known
interface. A container class is a supporting class whose purpose is to hide the topology used for
maintaining the list of objects in memory. When a container class contains a group of mixed objects, the
container is called a heterogeneous container; when the container is holding a group of objects that are all
the same, the container is called a homogeneous container.
26. What is a protocol class?
An abstract class is a protocol class if:
 it neither contains nor inherits from classes that contain member data, non-virtual
functions, or private (or protected) members of any kind.
 it has a non-inline virtual destructor defined with an empty implementation,
 all member functions other than the destructor including inherited functions, are
declared pure virtual functions and left undefined.
27. What is a mixin class?
A class that provides some but not all of the implementation for a virtual base class is often
called mixin. Derivation done just for the purpose of redefining the virtual functions in the base classes is
often called mixin inheritance. Mixin classes typically don't share common bases.
28. What is a concrete class?
A concrete class is used to define a useful object that can be instantiated as an automatic
variable on the program stack. The implementation of a concrete class is defined. The concrete class is not
intended to be a base class and no attempt to minimize dependency on other classes in the
implementation or behavior of the class.
29.What is the handle class?
A handle is a class that maintains a pointer to an object that is programmatically accessible
through the public interface of the handle class.
In case of abstract classes, unless one manipulates the objects of these classes through pointers
and references, the benefits of the virtual functions are lost. User code may become dependent on details
of implementation classes because an abstract type cannot be allocated statistically or on the stack
without its size being known. Using pointers or references implies that the burden of memory
management falls on the user. Another limitation of abstract class object is of fixed size. Classes however
are used to represent concepts that require varying amounts of storage to implement them.
A popular technique for dealing with these issues is to separate what is used as a single object in two
parts: a handle providing the user interface and a representation holding all or most of the object's state.
The connection between the handle and the representation is typically a pointer in the handle. Often,
handles have a bit more data than the simple representation pointer, but not much more. Hence the
layout of the handle is typically stable, even when the representation changes and also that handles are
small enough to move around relatively freely so that the user needn’t use the pointers and the
30. What is an action class?
The simplest and most obvious way to specify an action in C++ is to write a function. However, if
the action has to be delayed, has to be transmitted 'elsewhere' before being performed, requires its own
data, has to be combined with other actions, etc then it often becomes attractive to provide the action in
the form of a class that can execute the desired action and provide other services as well. Manipulators
used with iostreams is an obvious example.
A common form of action class is a simple class containing just one virtual function.
class Action
virtual int do_it( int )=0;
virtual ~Action( );
Given this, we can write code say a member that can store actions for later execution without
using pointers to functions, without knowing anything about the objects involved, and without even
knowing the name of the operation it invokes. For example:
class write_file : public Action
File& f;
int do_it(int)
return fwrite( ).suceed( );
class error_message: public Action
response_box db(message.cstr( ),"Continue","Cancel","Retry");
switch (db.getresponse( ))
case 0: return 0;
case 1: abort();
case 2: current_operation.redo( );return 1;
A user of the Action class will be completely isolated from any knowledge of derived classes such
as write_file and error_message.
31. When can you tell that a memory leak will occur?
A memory leak occurs when a program loses the ability to free a block of dynamically allocated
32.What is a parameterized type?
A template is a parameterized construct or type containing generic code that can use or
manipulate any type. It is called parameterized because an actual type is a parameter of the code body.
Polymorphism may be achieved through parameterized types. This type of polymorphism is called
parameteric polymorphism. Parameteric polymorphism is the mechanism by which the same code is used
on different types passed as parameters.
33. Differentiate between a deep copy and a shallow copy?
Deep copy involves using the contents of one object to create another instance of the same class.
In a deep copy, the two objects may contain ht same information but the target object will have its own
buffers and resources. the destruction of either object will not affect the remaining object. The overloaded
assignment operator would create a deep copy of objects.
Shallow copy involves copying the contents of one object into another instance of the same class
thus creating a mirror image. Owing to straight copying of references and pointers, the two objects will
share the same externally contained contents of the other object to be unpredictable.
Using a copy constructor we simply copy the data values member by member. This method of
copying is called shallow copy. If the object is a simple class, comprised of built in types and no pointers
this would be acceptable. This function would use the values and the objects and its behavior would not be
altered with a shallow copy, only the addresses of pointers that are members are copied and not the value
the address is pointing to. The data values of the object would then be inadvertently altered by the
function. When the function goes out of scope, the copy of the object with all its data is popped off the
If the object has any pointers a deep copy needs to be executed. With the deep copy of an
object, memory is allocated for the object in free store and the elements pointed to are copied. A deep
copy is used for objects that are returned from a function.
34. What is an opaque pointer?
A pointer is said to be opaque if the definition of the type to which it points to is not included in
the current translation unit. A translation unit is the result of merging an implementation file with all its
headers and header files.
35. What is a smart pointer?
A smart pointer is an object that acts, looks and feels like a normal pointer but offers more
functionality. In C++, smart pointers are implemented as template classes that encapsulate a pointer and
override standard pointer operators. They have a number of advantages over regular pointers. They are
guaranteed to be initialized as either null pointers or pointers to a heap object. Indirection through a null
pointer is checked. No delete is ever necessary. Objects are automatically freed when the last pointer to
them has gone away. One significant problem with these smart pointers is that unlike regular pointers,
they don't respect inheritance. Smart pointers are unattractive for polymorphic code. Given below is an
example for the implementation of smart pointers.
template <class X>
class smart_pointer
smart_pointer(); // makes a null pointer
smart_pointer(const X& x) // makes pointer to copy of x
X& operator *( );
const X& operator*( ) const;
X* operator->() const;
smart_pointer(const smart_pointer <X> &);
const smart_pointer <X> & operator =(const smart_pointer<X>&);
This class implement a smart pointer to an object of type X. The object itself is located on the
heap. Here is how to use it:
smart_pointer <employee> p= employee("Harris",1333);
Like other overloaded operators, p will behave like a regular pointer,
36. What is reflexive association?
The 'is-a' is called a reflexive association because the reflexive association permits classes to bear
the is-a association not only with their super-classes but also with themselves. It differs from a
'specializes-from' as 'specializes-from' is usually used to describe the association between a super-class
and a sub-class. For example:
Printer is-a printer.
37. What is slicing?
Slicing means that the data added by a subclass are discarded when an object of the subclass is
passed or returned by value or from a function expecting a base class object.
Consider the following class declaration:
class base
base& operator =(const base&);
base (const base&);
void fun( )
base e=m;
As base copy functions don't know anything about the derived only the base part of the derived is
copied. This is commonly referred to as slicing. One reason to pass objects of classes in a hierarchy is to
avoid slicing. Other reasons are to preserve polymorphic behavior and to gain efficiency.
38. What is name mangling?
Name mangling is the process through which your c++ compilers give each function in your
program a unique name. In C++, all programs have at-least a few functions with the same name. Name
mangling is a concession to the fact that linker always insists on all function names being unique.
In general, member names are made unique by concatenating the name of the member with that
of the class e.g. given the declaration:
class Bar
int ival;
ival becomes something like:
// a possible member name mangling
Consider this derivation:
class Foo : public Bar
int ival;
The internal representation of a Foo object is the concatenation of its base and derived class
// Pseudo C++ code
// Internal representation of Foo
class Foo
int ival__3Bar;
int ival__3Foo;
Unambiguous access of either ival members is achieved through name mangling. Member
functions, because they can be overloaded, require an extensive mangling to provide each with a unique
name. Here the compiler generates the same name for the two overloaded instances(Their argument lists
make their instances unique).
39. What are proxy objects?
Objects that points to other objects are called proxy objects or surrogates. Its an object that
provides the same interface as its server object but does not have any functionality. During a method
invocation, it routes data to the true server object and sends back the return value to the object.
40. Differentiate between declaration and definition in C++.
A declaration introduces a name into the program; a definition provides a unique description of
an entity (e.g. type, instance, and function). Declarations can be repeated in a given scope, it introduces a
name in a given scope. There must be exactly one definition of every object, function or class used in a
C++ program.
A declaration is a definition unless:
 it declares a function without specifying its body,
 it contains an extern specifier and no initializer or function body,
 it is the declaration of a static class data member without a class definition,
 it is a class name definition,
 it is a typedef declaration.
A definition is a declaration unless:
 it defines a static class data member,
 it defines a non-inline member function.
41. What is cloning?
An object can carry out copying in two ways i.e. it can set itself to be a copy of another object, or
it can return a copy of itself. The latter process is called cloning.
42. Describe the main characteristics of static functions.
The main characteristics of static functions include,
 It is without the a this pointer,
 It can't directly access the non-static members of its class
 It can't be declared const, volatile or virtual.
 It doesn't need to be invoked through an object of its class, although for convenience, it
43. Will the inline function be compiled as the inline function always? Justify.
An inline function is a request and not a command. Hence it won't be compiled as an inline
function always.
Inline-expansion could fail if the inline function contains loops, the address of an inline function is
used, or an inline function is called in a complex expression. The rules for inlining are compiler dependent.
44. Define a way other than using the keyword inline to make a function inline.
The function must be defined inside the class.
45. How can a '::' operator be used as unary operator?
The scope operator can be used to refer to members of the global namespace. Because the global
namespace doesn’t have a name, the notation :: member-name refers to a member of the global
namespace. This can be useful for referring to members of global namespace whose names have been
hidden by names declared in nested local scope. Unless we specify to the compiler in which namespace to
search for a declaration, the compiler simple searches the current scope, and any scopes in which the
current scope is nested, to find the declaration for the name.
46. What is placement new?
When you want to call a constructor directly, you use the placement new. Sometimes you have
some raw memory that's already been allocated, and you need to construct an object in the memory you
have. Operator new's special version placement new allows you to do it.
class Widget
public :
Widget(int widgetsize);
Widget* Construct_widget_int_buffer(void *buffer,int widgetsize)
return new(buffer) Widget(widgetsize);
This function returns a pointer to a Widget object that's constructed within the buffer passed to
the function. Such a function might be useful for applications using shared memory or memory-mapped
I/O, because objects in such applications must be placed at specific addresses or in memory allocated by
special routines.
Object Oriented Analysis and Design(OOAD)
1. What do you mean by analysis and design?
Basically, it is the process of determining what needs to be done before how it should be
done. In order to accomplish this, the developer refers the existing systems and documents. So, simply it
is an art of discovery.
It is the process of adopting/choosing the one among the many, which best
accomplishes the users needs. So, simply, it is compromising mechanism.
2. What are the steps involved in designing?
Before getting into the design the designer should go through the SRS prepared by the System
The main tasks of design are Architectural Design and Detailed Design.
In Architectural Design we find what are the main modules in the problem domain.
In Detailed Design we find what should be done within each module.
3. What are the main underlying concepts of object orientation?
Objects, messages, class, inheritance and polymorphism are the main concepts of object
4. What do u meant by "SBI" of an object?
SBI stands for State, Behavior and Identity. Since every object has the above three.
 State:
It is just a value to the attribute of an object at a particular time.
 Behaviour:
It describes the actions and their reactions of that object.
 Identity:
An object has an identity that characterizes its own existence. The identity makes it
possible to distinguish any object in an unambiguous way, and independently from its state.
5. Differentiate persistent & non-persistent objects?
Persistent refers to an object's ability to transcend time or space. A persistent object stores/saves
its state in a permanent storage system with out losing the information represented by the object.
A non-persistent object is said to be transient or ephemeral. By default objects are considered as
6. What do you meant by active and passive objects?
Active objects are one which instigate an interaction which owns a thread and they are
responsible for handling control to other objects. In simple words it can be referred as client.
Passive objects are one, which passively waits for the message to be processed. It waits for
another object that requires its services. In simple words it can be referred as server.
client server
(Active) (Passive)
7. What is meant by software development method?
Software development method describes how to model and build software systems in a reliable
and reproducible way. To put it simple, methods that are used to represent ones' thinking using graphical
class A
class B class C
8. What are models and meta models?
It is a complete description of something (i.e. system).
Meta model:
It describes the model elements, syntax and semantics of the notation that allows their
9. What do you meant by static and dynamic modeling?
Static modeling is used to specify structure of the objects that exist in the problem domain.
These are expressed using class, object and USECASE diagrams.
But Dynamic modeling refers representing the object interactions during runtime. It is
represented by sequence, activity, collaboration and statechart diagrams.
10. How to represent the interaction between the modeling elements?
Model element is just a notation to represent (Graphically) the entities that exist in the problem
domain. e.g. for modeling element is class notation, object notation etc.
Relationships are used to represent the interaction between the modeling elements.
The following are the Relationships.
 Association: Its' just a semantic connection two classes.
 Aggregation: Its' the relationship between two classes which are related in the fashion that master
and slave. The master takes full rights than the slave. Since the slave works under the master. It is
represented as line with diamond in the master area.
car contains wheels, etc.
 Containment: This relationship is applied when the part contained with in the whole part, dies when
the whole part dies.
It is represented as darked diamond at the whole part.
class A{
//some code
class B
A aa; // an object of class A;
// some code for class B;
In the above example we see that an object of class A is instantiated with in the class B. so the
object class A dies when the object class B dies.we can represnt it in diagram like this.
 Generalization: This relationship used when we want
represents a class, which captures the common states of
objects of different classes. It is represented as arrow line
pointed at the class, which has captured the common
car wheels
class A uses class B
class A class B
 Dependency: It is the relationship between dependent and independent classes. Any change in the
independent class will affect the states of the dependent class.
class A class B
11. Why generalization is very strong?
Even though Generalization satisfies Structural, Interface, Behaviour properties. It is
mathematically very strong, as it is Antisymmetric and Transitive.
Antisymmetric: employee is a person, but not all persons are employees. Mathematically all As’
are B, but all Bs’ not A.
Transitive: A=>B, B=>c then A=>c.
A. Salesman.
B. Employee.
C. Person.
Note: All the other relationships satisfy all the properties like Structural properties, Interface
properties, Behaviour properties.
12. Differentiate Aggregation and containment?
Aggregation is the relationship between the whole and a part. We can add/subtract some
properties in the part (slave) side. It won't affect the whole part.
Best example is Car, which contains the wheels and some extra parts. Even though the parts are
not there we can call it as car.
But, in the case of containment the whole part is affected when the part within that got affected.
The human body is an apt example for this relationship. When the whole body dies the parts (heart etc)
are died.
13. Can link and Association applied interchangeably?
No, You cannot apply the link and Association interchangeably. Since link is used represent the
relationship between the two objects.
But Association is used represent the relationship between the two classes.
link :: student:Abhilash course:MCA
Association:: student course
14. what is meant by "method-wars"?
Before 1994 there were different methodologies like Rumbaugh, Booch, Jacobson, Meyer etc who
followed their own notations to model the systems. The developers were in a dilemma to choose the
method which best accomplishes their needs. This particular span was called as "method-wars"
15. Whether unified method and unified modeling language are same or different?
Unified method is convergence of the Rumbaugh and Booch.
Unified modeling lang. is the fusion of Rumbaugh, Booch and Jacobson as well as Betrand Meyer
(whose contribution is "sequence diagram"). Its' the superset of all the methodologies.
16. Who were the three famous amigos and what was their contribution to the object community?
The Three amigos namely,
 James Rumbaugh (OMT): A veteran in analysis who came up with an idea about the objects
and their Relationships (in particular Associations).
 Grady Booch: A veteran in design who came up with an idea about partitioning of systems into
 Ivar Jacobson (Objectory): The father of USECASES, who described about the user and system
17. Differentiate the class representation of Booch, Rumbaugh and UML?
If you look at the class representaiton of Rumbaugh and UML, It is some what similar and both
are very easy to draw.
Representation: OMT UML.
Booch: In this method classes are represented as "Clouds" which are not very easy to draw as for
as the developer's view is concern.
18. What is an USECASE? Why it is needed?
A Use Case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a system performs that yields an
observable result of value to a particular action.
In SSAD process <=> In OOAD USECASE. It is represented elliptically.
19. Who is an Actor?
An Actor is someone or something that must interact with the system.In addition to that
an Actor initiates the process(that is USECASE).
It is represented as a stickman like this.
20. What is guard condition?
Guard condition is one, which acts as a firewall. The access from a particular object can be made
only when the particular condition is met.
For Example,
customer check customer number ATM.
Here the object on the customer accesses the ATM facility only when the guard condition is met.
21. Differentiate the following notations?
I: :obj1 :obj2
II: :obj1 :obj2
In the above representation I, obj1 sends message to obj2. But in the case of II the data is
transferred from obj1 to obj2.
22. USECASE is an implementation independent notation. How will the designer give the implementation
details of a particular USECASE to the programmer?
This can be accomplished by specifying the relationship called "refinement” which talks
about the two different abstraction of the same thing.
Or example,
calculate pay calculate
class1 class2 class3
23. Suppose a class acts an Actor in the problem domain, how to represent it in the static model?
In this scenario you can use “stereotype”. Since stereotype is just a string that gives extra
semantic to the particular entity/model element. It is given with in the << >>.
class A
<< Actor>>
24. Why does the function arguments are called as "signatures"?
The arguments distinguish functions with the same name (functional polymorphism). The name
alone does not necessarily identify a unique function. However, the name and its arguments (signatures)
will uniquely identify a function.
In real life we see suppose, in class there are two guys with same name, but they can be
easily identified by their signatures. The same concept is applied here.
class person
char getsex();
void setsex(char);
void setsex(int);
In the above example we see that there is a function setsex() with same name but with different
Quantitative Aptitude
Exercise 1
Solve the following and check with the answers given at the end.
1. It was calculated that 75 men could complete a piece of work in 20 days. When work was
scheduled to commence, it was found necessary to send 25 men to another project. How much
longer will it take to complete the work?
2. A student divided a number by 2/3 when he required to multiply by 3/2. Calculate the percentage
of error in his result.
3. A dishonest shopkeeper professes to sell pulses at the cost price, but he uses a false weight of
950gm. for a kg. His gain is …%.
4. A software engineer has the capability of thinking 100 lines of code in five minutes and can type
100 lines of code in 10 minutes. He takes a break for five minutes after every ten minutes. How
many lines of codes will he complete typing after an hour?
5. A man was engaged on a job for 30 days on the condition that he would get a wage of Rs. 10 for
the day he works, but he have to pay a fine of Rs. 2 for each day of his absence. If he gets Rs.
216 at the end, he was absent for work for ... days.
6. A contractor agreeing to finish a work in 150 days, employed 75 men each working 8 hours daily.
After 90 days, only 2/7 of the work was completed. Increasing the number of men by ________
each working now for 10 hours daily, the work can be completed in time.
7. what is a percent of b divided by b percent of a?
(a) a (b) b (c) 1 (d) 10 (d) 100
8. A man bought a horse and a cart. If he sold the horse at 10 % loss and the cart at 20 % gain, he
would not lose anything; but if he sold the horse at 5% loss and the cart at 5% gain, he would
lose Rs. 10 in the bargain. The amount paid by him was Rs._______ for the horse and
Rs.________ for the cart.
9. A tennis marker is trying to put together a team of four players for a tennis tournament out of
seven available. males - a, b and c; females – m, n, o and p. All players are of equal ability and
there must be at least two males in the team. For a team of four, all players must be able to play
with each other under the following restrictions:
b should not play with m,
c should not play with p, and
a should not play with o.
Which of the following statements must be false?
1. b and p cannot be selected together
2. c and o cannot be selected together
3. c and n cannot be selected together.
10-12. The following figure depicts three views of a cube. Based on this, answer questions 10-
6 5 4
1 22 3 6
2 2 3
10. The number on the face opposite to the face carrying 1 is _______ .
11. The number on the faces adjacent to the face marked 5 are _______ .
12. Which of the following pairs does not correctly give the numbers on the opposite faces.
(1) 6,5 (2) 4,1 (3) 1,3 (4) 4,2
13. Five farmers have 7, 9, 11, 13 & 14 apple trees, respectively in their orchards. Last year, each of
them discovered that every tree in their own orchard bore exactly the same number of apples.
Further, if the third farmer gives one apple to the first, and the fifth gives three to each of the
second and the fourth, they would all have exactly the same number of apples. What were the
yields per tree in the orchards of the third and fourth farmers?
14. Five boys were climbing a hill. J was following H. R was just ahead of G. K was between G & H.
They were climbing up in a column. Who was the second?
15-18 John is undecided which of the four novels to buy. He is considering a spy
thriller, a Murder mystery, a Gothic romance and a science fiction novel. The books are written by
Rothko, Gorky, Burchfield and Hopper, not necessary in that order, and published by Heron,
Piegon, Blueja and sparrow, not necessary in that order.
1 (1) The book by Rothko is published by Sparrow.
2 (2) The Spy thriller is published by Heron.
(3) The science fiction novel is by Burchfield and is not published by Blueja.
3 (4)The Gothic romance is by Hopper.
15. Pigeon publishes ____________.
16. The novel by Gorky ________________.
17. John purchases books by the authors whose names come first and third in alphabetical order. He
does not buy the books ______.
18. On the basis of the first paragraph and statement (2), (3) and (4) only, it is possible to deduce
1. Rothko wrote the murder mystery or the spy thriller
2. Sparrow published the murder mystery or the spy thriller
3. The book by Burchfield is published by Sparrow.
19. If a light flashes every 6 seconds, how many times will it flash in ¾ of an hour?
20. If point P is on line segment AB, then which of the following is always true?
(1) AP = PB (2) AP > PB (3) PB > AP (4) AB > AP (5) AB > AP + PB
21. All men are vertebrates. Some mammals are vertebrates. Which of the following conclusions
drawn from the above statement is correct.
All men are mammals
All mammals are men
Some vertebrates are mammals.
22. Which of the following statements drawn from the given statements are correct?
All watches sold in that shop are of high standard. Some of the HMT watches are sold in that
a) All watches of high standard were manufactured by HMT.
b) Some of the HMT watches are of high standard.
c) None of the HMT watches is of high standard.
d) Some of the HMT watches of high standard are sold in that shop.
1. Ashland is north of East Liverpool and west of Coshocton.
2. Bowling green is north of Ashland and west of Fredericktown.
3. Dover is south and east of Ashland.
4. East Liverpool is north of Fredericktown and east of Dover.
5. Fredericktown is north of Dover and west of Ashland.
6. Coshocton is south of Fredericktown and west of Dover.
23. Which of the towns mentioned is furthest of the north – west
(a) Ashland (b) Bowling green (c) Coshocton
(d) East Liverpool(e) Fredericktown
24. Which of the following must be both north and east of Fredericktown?
(a) Ashland (b) Coshocton (c) East Liverpool
I a only II b only III c only IV a & b V a & c
25. Which of the following towns must be situated both south and west of at least one other town?
A. Ashland only
B. Ashland and Fredericktown
C. Dover and Fredericktown
D. Dover, Coshocton and Fredericktown
E. Coshocton, Dover and East Liverpool.
26. Which of the following statements, if true, would make the information in the numbered
statements more specific?
(a) Coshocton is north of Dover.
(b) East Liverpool is north of Dover
(c) Ashland is east of Bowling green.
(d) Coshocton is east of Fredericktown
(e) Bowling green is north of Fredericktown
27. Which of the numbered statements gives information that can be deduced from one or more of
the other statements?
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 6
28. Eight friends Harsha, Fakis, Balaji, Eswar, Dhinesh, Chandra, Geetha, and Ahmed are sitting in a
circle facing the center. Balaji is sitting between Geetha and Dhinesh. Harsha is third to the left of
Balaji and second to the right of Ahmed. Chandra is sitting between Ahmed and Geetha and
Balaji and Eshwar are not sitting opposite to each other. Who is third to the left of Dhinesh?
29. If every alternative letter starting from B of the English alphabet is written in small letter, rest all
are written in capital letters, how the month “ September” be written.
(1) SeptEMbEr (2) SEpTeMBEr (3) SeptembeR
(4) SepteMber (5) None of the above.
30. The length of the side of a square is represented by x+2. The length of the side of an equilateral
triangle is 2x. If the square and the equilateral triangle have equal perimeter, then the value of x
is _______.
31. It takes Mr. Karthik y hours to complete typing a manuscript. After 2 hours, he was called away.
What fractional part of the assignment was left incomplete?
32. Which of the following is larger than 3/5?
(1) ½ (2) 39/50 (3) 7/25 (4) 3/10 (5) 59/100
33. The number that does not have a reciprocal is ____________.
34. There are 3 persons Sudhir, Arvind, and Gauri. Sudhir lent cars to Arvind and Gauri as many as
they had already. After some time Arvind gave as many cars to Sudhir and Gauri as many as
they have. After sometime Gauri did the same thing. At the end of this transaction each one of
them had 24. Find the cars each originally had.
35. A man bought a horse and a cart. If he sold the horse at 10 % loss and the cart at 20 % gain, he
would not lose anything; but if he sold the horse at 5% loss and the cart at 5% gain, he would
lose Rs. 10 in the bargain. The amount paid by him was Rs._______ for the horse and
Rs.________ for the cart.
1. Answer:
30 days.
One day work = 1 / 20
One man’s one day work = 1 / ( 20 * 75)
No. Of workers = 50
One day work = 50 * 1 / ( 20 * 75)
The total no. of days required to complete the work = (75 * 20) / 50 = 30
2. Answer:
0 %
Since 3x / 2 = x / (2 / 3)
3. Answer:
5.3 %
He sells 950 grams of pulses and gains 50 grams.
If he sells 100 grams of pulses then he will gain (50 / 950) *100 = 5.26
4. Answer:
250 lines of codes
5. Answer:
7 days
The equation portraying the given problem is:
10 * x – 2 * (30 – x) = 216 where x is the number of working days.
Solving this we get x = 23
Number of days he was absent was 7 (30-23) days.
6. Answer:
150 men.
One day’s work = 2 / (7 * 90)
One hour’s work = 2 / (7 * 90 * 8)
One man’s work = 2 / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75)
The remaining work (5/7) has to be completed within 60 days, because the total number
of days allotted for the project is 150 days.
So we get the equation
(2 * 10 * x * 60) / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75) = 5/7 where x is the number of men
working after the 90th day.
We get x = 225
Since we have 75 men already, it is enough to add only 150 men.
7. Answer:
(c) 1
a percent of b : (a/100) * b
b percent of a : (b/100) * a
a percent of b divided by b percent of a : ((a / 100 )*b) / (b/100) * a )) = 1
8. Answer:
Cost price of horse = Rs. 400 & the cost price of cart = 200.
Let x be the cost price of the horse and y be the cost price of the cart.
In the first sale there is no loss or profit. (i.e.) The loss obtained is equal to the gain.
Therefore (10/100) * x = (20/100) * y
X = 2 * y -----------------(1)
In the second sale, he lost Rs. 10. (i.e.) The loss is greater than the profit by Rs. 10.
Therefore (5 / 100) * x = (5 / 100) * y + 10 -------(2)
Substituting (1) in (2) we get
(10 / 100) * y = (5 / 100) * y + 10
(5 / 100) * y = 10
y = 200
From (1) 2 * 200 = x = 400
9. Answer:
Since inclusion of any male player will reject a female from the team. Since there should
be four member in the team and only three males are available, the girl, n should included in the
team always irrespective of others selection.
10. Answer:
11. Answer:
1,2,3 & 4
12. Answer:
13. Answer:
11 & 9 apples per tree.
Let a, b, c, d & e be the total number of apples bored per year in A, B, C, D & E ‘s
orchard. Given that a + 1 = b + 3 = c – 1 = d + 3 = e – 6
But the question is to find the number of apples bored per tree in C and D ‘s orchard. If is enough
to consider c – 1 = d + 3.
Since the number of trees in C’s orchard is 11 and that of D’s orchard is 13. Let x and y
be the number of apples bored per tree in C & d ‘s orchard respectively.
Therefore 11 x – 1 = 13 y + 3
By trial and error method, we get the value for x and y as 11 and 9
14. Answer:
The order in which they are climbing is R – G – K – H – J
15 – 18
Answer:Novel Name Author Publisher
Spy thriller Rathko Heron
Murder mystery Gorky Piegon
Gothic romance Burchfield Blueja
Science fiction Hopper Sparrow
Novel Name Author Publisher
Spy thriller Rathko Heron
Murder mystery Gorky Piegon
Gothic romance Burchfield Blueja
Science fiction Hopper Sparrow
Since Blueja doesn’t publish the novel by Burchfield and Heron publishes the novel spy
thriller, Piegon publishes the novel by Burchfield.
Since Hopper writes Gothic romance and Heron publishes the novel spy thriller, Blueja
publishes the novel by Hopper.
Since Heron publishes the novel spy thriller and Heron publishes the novel by Gorky,
Gorky writes Spy thriller and Rathko writes Murder mystery.
19. Answer:
451 times.
There are 60 minutes in an hour.
In ¾ of an hour there are (60 * ¾) minutes = 45 minutes.
In ¾ of an hour there are (60 * 45) seconds = 2700 seconds.
Light flashed for every 6 seconds.
In 2700 seconds 2700/6 = 450 times.
The count start after the first flash, the light will flashes 451 times in ¾ of an hour.
20. Answer:
Since p is a point on the line segment AB, AB > AP
21. Answer: (c)
22. Answer: (b) & (d).
23 - 27.Answer:
Fakis Chandra
28. Answer: Fakis
Explanation: Harsha Geetha
Eswar Balaji
29. Answer:
Since every alternative letter starting from B of the English alphabet is written in small
letter, the letters written in small letter are b, d, f...
In the first two answers the letter E is written in both small & capital letters, so they are
not the correct answers. But in third and fourth answers the letter is written in small letter
instead capital letter, so they are not the answers.
30. Answer:
x = 4
Since the side of the square is x + 2, its perimeter = 4 (x + 2) = 4x + 8
Since the side of the equilateral triangle is 2x, its perimeter = 3 * 2x = 6x
Also, the perimeters of both are equal.
(i.e.) 4x + 8 = 6x
(i.e.) 2x = 8  x = 4.
31. Answer:
5 (y – 2) / y.
To type a manuscript karthik took y hours.
Therefore his speed in typing = 1/y.
He was called away after 2 hours of typing.
Therefore the work completed = 1/y * 2.
Therefore the remaining work to be completed = 1 – 2/y.
(i.e.) work to be completed = (y-2)/y
32. Answer:
33. Answer:
One is the only number exists without reciprocal because the reciprocal of one is one
34. Answer:
Sudhir had 39 cars, Arvind had 21 cars and Gauri had 12 cars.
Sudhir Arvind Gauri
Finally 24 24 24
Before Gauri’s transaction 12 12 48
Before Arvind’s transaction 6 42 24
Before Sudhir’ s transaction 39 21 12
35. Answer:
Cost price of horse: Rs. 400 &
Cost price of cart: Rs. 200
Let x be the cost of horse & y be the cost of the cart.
10 % of loss in selling horse = 20 % of gain in selling the cart
Therefore (10 / 100) * x = (20 * 100) * y
 x = 2y -----------(1)
5 % of loss in selling the horse is 10 more than the 5 % gain in selling the cart.
Therefore (5 / 100) * x - 10 = (5 / 100) * y
 5x - 1000 = 5y
Substituting (1)
10y - 1000 = 5y
5y = 1000
y = 200
x = 400 from (1)
Exercise 2.1
For the following, find the next term in the series
1. 6, 24, 60,120, 210
a) 336b) 366 c) 330 d) 660
Answer : a) 336
Explanation : The series is 1.2.3, 2.3.4, 3.4.5, 4.5.6, 5.6.7, ..... ( '.' means product)
2. 1, 5, 13, 25
Answer : 41
Explanation : The series is of the form 0^2+1^2, 1^2+2^2,...
3. 0, 5, 8, 17
Answer : 24
Explanation : 1^2-1, 2^2+1, 3^2-1, 4^2+1, 5^2-1
4. 1, 8, 9, 64, 25 (Hint : Every successive terms are related)
Answer : 216
Explanation : 1^2, 2^3, 3^2, 4^3, 5^2, 6^3
5. 8,24,12,36,18,54
Answer : 27
6. 71,76,69,74,67,72
Answer : 67
7. 5,9,16,29,54
Answer : 103
Explanation : 5*2-1=9; 9*2-2=16; 16*2-3=29; 29*2-4=54; 54*2-5=103
8. 1,2,4,10,16,40,64 (Successive terms are related)
Answer : 200
Explanation : The series is powers of 2 (2^0,2^1,..).
All digits are less than 8. Every second number is in octal number system.
128 should follow 64. 128 base 10 = 200 base 8.
Exercise 2.2
Find the odd man out.
1. 3,5,7,12,13,17,19
Answer : 12
Explanation : All but 12 are odd numbers
2. 2,5,10,17,26,37,50,64
Answer : 64
Explanation : 2+3=5; 5+5=10; 10+7=17; 17+9=26; 26+11=37; 37+13=50; 50+15=65;
3. 105,85,60,30,0,-45,-90
Answer : 0
Explanation : 105-20=85; 85-25=60; 60-30=30; 30-35=-5; -5-40=-45; -45-45=-90;
Exercise 3
Solve the following.
1. What is the number of zeros at the end of the product of the numbers from 1 to 100?
Answer : 127
2. A fast typist can type some matter in 2 hours and a slow typist can type the same in 3 hours. If both
type combinely, in how much time will they finish?
Answer : 1 hr 12 min
Explanation : The fast typist's work done in 1 hr = 1/2
The slow typist's work done in 1 hr = 1/3
If they work combinely, work done in 1 hr = 1/2+1/3 = 5/6
So, the work will be completed in 6/5 hours. i.e., 1+1/5 hours = 1hr 12 min
3. Gavaskar's average in his first 50 innings was 50. After the 51st innings, his average was 51. How
many runs did he score in his 51st innings. (supposing that he lost his wicket in his 51st innings)
Answer : 101
Explanation : Total score after 50 innings = 50*50 = 2500
Total score after 51 innings = 51*51 = 2601
So, runs made in the 51st innings = 2601-2500 = 101
If he had not lost his wicket in his 51st innings, he would have scored an unbeaten 50 in
his 51st innings.
4. Out of 80 coins, one is counterfeit. What is the minimum number of weighings needed to find out the
counterfeit coin?
Answer : 4
5. What can you conclude from the statement : All green are blue, all blue are red. ?
(i) some blue are green
(ii) some red are green
(iii) some green are not red
(iv) all red are blue
(a) i or ii but not both
(b) i & ii only
(c) iii or iv but not both
(d) iii & iv
Answer : (b)
6. A rectangular plate with length 8 inches, breadth 11 inches and thickness 2 inches is available. What is
the length of the circular rod with diameter 8 inches and equal to the volume of the rectangular plate?
Answer : 3.5 inches
Explanation : Volume of the circular rod (cylinder) = Volume of the rectangular plate
(22/7)*4*4*h = 8*11*2
h = 7/2 = 3.5
7. What is the sum of all numbers between 100 and 1000 which are divisible by 14 ?
Answer : 35392
Explanation : The number closest to 100 which is greater than 100 and divisible by 14 is 112,
which is the first term of the series which has to be summed.
The number closest to 1000 which is less than 1000 and divisible by 14 is 994, which is
the last term of the series.
112 + 126 + .... + 994 = 14(8+9+ ... + 71) = 35392
8. If s(a) denotes square root of a, find the value of s(12+s(12+s(12+ ...... upto infinity.
Answer : 4
Explanation : Let x = s(12+s(12+s(12+.....
We can write x = s(12+x). i.e., x^2 = 12 + x. Solving this quadratic equation, we get x = -3 or
x=4. Sum cannot be -ve and hence sum = 4.
9. A cylindrical container has a radius of eight inches with a height of three inches. Compute how many
inches should be added to either the radius or height to give the same increase in volume?
Answer : 16/3 inches
Explanation : Let x be the amount of increase. The volume will increase by the same amount if
the radius increased or the height is increased.
So, the effect on increasing height is equal to the effect on increasing the radius.
i.e., (22/7)*8*8*(3+x) = (22/7)*(8+x)*(8+x)*3
Solving the quadratic equation we get the x = 0 or 16/3. The possible increase would be by 16/3
10. With just six weights and a balance scale, you can weigh any unit number of kgs from 1 to 364. What
could be the six weights?
Answer : 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243 (All powers of 3)
11. Diophantus passed one sixth of his life in childhood, one twelfth in youth, and one seventh more as a
bachelor; five years after his marriage a son was born who died four years before his father at half his
final age. How old is Diophantus?
Answer : 84 years
Explanation : x/6 + x/12 + x/7 + 5 + x/2 + 4 = x
12 . If time at this moment is 9 P.M., what will be the time 23999999992 hours later?
Answer : 1 P.M.
Explanation : 24 billion hours later, it would be 9 P.M. and 8 hours before that it would be 1
13. How big will an angle of one and a half degree look through a glass that magnifies things three times?
Answer : 1 1/2 degrees
Explanation : The magnifying glass cannot increase the magnitude of an angle.
14. Divide 45 into four parts such that when 2 is added to the first part, 2 is subtracted from the second
part, 2 is multiplied by the third part and the fourth part is divided by two, all result in the same number.
Answer: 8, 12, 5, 20
Explanation: a + b + c + d =45; a+2 = b-2 = 2c = d/2; a=b-4; c = (b-2)/2; d = 2(b-2);
b-4 + b + (b-2)/2 + 2(b-2) = 45;
15. I drove 60 km at 30 kmph and then an additional 60 km at 50 kmph. Compute my average speed
over my 120 km.
Answer : 37 1/2
Explanation : Time reqd for the first 60 km = 120 min.; Time reqd for the second 60 km = 72
min.; Total time reqd = 192 min
Avg speed = (60*120)/192 = 37 1/2
Questions 16 and 17 are based on the following :
Five executives of European Corporation hold a Conference in Rome
Mr. A converses in Spanish & Italian
Mr. B, a spaniard, knows English also
Mr. C knows English and belongs to Italy
Mr. D converses in French and Spanish
Mr. E , a native of Italy knows French
16. Which of the following can act as interpreter if Mr. C & Mr. D wish to converse
a) only Mr. A b) Only Mr. B c) Mr. A & Mr. B d) Any of the other three
Answer : d) Any of the other three.
Explanation : From the data given, we can infer the following.
A knows Spanish, Italian
B knows Spanish, English
C knows Italian, English
D knows Spanish, French
E knows Italian, French
To act as an interpreter between C and D, a person has to know one of the combinations
Italian&Spanish, Italian&French, English&Spanish, English&French
A, B, and E know atleast one of the combinations.
17. If a 6th executive is brought in, to be understood by maximum number of original five he should be
fluent in
a) English & French b) Italian & Spanish c) English & French d) French &
Answer : b) Italian & Spanish
Explanation : No of executives who know
i) English is 2
ii) Spanish is 3
iii) Italian is 3
iv) French is 2
Italian & Spanish are spoken by the maximum no of executives. So, if the 6th executive is fluent in
Italian & Spanish, he can communicate with all the original five because everybody knows either Spanish
or Italian.
18. What is the sum of the first 25 natural odd numbers?
Answer : 625
Explanation : The sum of the first n natural odd nos is square(n).
1+3 = 4 = square(2) 1+3+5 = 9 = square(3)
19. The sum of any seven consecutive numbers is divisible by
a) 2 b) 7 c) 3 d) 11
Exercise 3
Try the following.
1. There are seventy clerks working in a company, of which 30 are females. Also, 30 clerks are
married; 24 clerks are above 25 years of age; 19 married clerks are above 25 years, of which 7
are males; 12 males are above 25 years of age; and 15 males are married. How many bachelor
girls are there and how many of these are above 25?
2. A man sailed off from the North Pole. After covering 2,000 miles in one direction he turned West,
sailed 2,000 miles, turned North and sailed ahead another 2,000 miles till he met his friend. How
far was he from the North Pole and in what direction?
3. Here is a series of comments on the ages of three persons J, R, S by themselves.
S : The difference between R's age and mine is three years.
J : R is the youngest.
R : Either I am 24 years old or J 25 or S 26.
J : All are above 24 years of age.
S : I am the eldest if and only if R is not the youngest.
R : S is elder to me.
J : I am the eldest.
R : S is not 27 years old.
S : The sum of my age and J's is two more than twice R's age.
One of the three had been telling a lie throughout whereas others had spoken the truth.
Determine the ages of S,J,R.
4. In a group of five people, what is the probability of finding two persons with the same month of
5. A father and his son go out for a 'walk-and-run' every morning around a track formed by an
equilateral triangle. The father's walking speed is 2 mph and his running speed is 5 mph. The
son's walking and running speeds are twice that of his father. Both start together from one apex
of the triangle, the son going clockwise and the father anti-clockwise. Initially the father runs and
the son walks for a certain period of time. Thereafter, as soon as the father starts walking, the
son starts running. Both complete the course in 45 minutes. For how long does the father run?
Where do the two cross each other?
6. The Director of Medical Services was on his annual visit to the ENT Hospital. While going through
the out patients' records he came across the following data for a particular day : " Ear
consultations 45; Nose 50; Throat 70; Ear and Nose 30; Nose and Throat 20; Ear and Throat 30;
Ear, Nose and Throat 10; Total patients 100." Then he came to the conclusion that the records
were bogus. Was he right?
7. Amongst Ram, Sham and Gobind are a doctor, a lawyer and a police officer. They are married to
Radha, Gita and Sita (not in order). Each of the wives have a profession. Gobind's wife is an
artist. Ram is not married to Gita. The lawyer's wife is a teacher. Radha is married to the police
officer. Sita is an expert cook. Who's who?
8. What should come next?
1, 2, 4, 10, 16, 40, 64,
Questions 9-12 are based on the following :
Three adults – Roberto, Sarah and Vicky – will be traveling in a van with five children – Freddy,
Hillary, Jonathan, Lupe, and Marta. The van has a driver’s seat and one passenger seat in the
front, and two benches behind the front seats, one beach behind the other. Each bench has room
for exactly three people. Everyone must sit in a seat or on a bench, and seating is subject to the
following restrictions: An adult must sit on each bench.
Either Roberto or Sarah must sit in the driver’s seat.
Jonathan must sit immediately beside Marta.
9. Of the following, who can sit in the front passenger seat ?
(a) Jonathan (b) Lupe (c) Roberto (d) Sarah (e) Vicky
10. Which of the following groups of three can sit together on a bench?
(a) Freddy, Jonathan and Marta (b) Freddy, Jonathan and Vicky
(c) Freddy, Sarah and Vicky (d) Hillary, Lupe and Sarah
(e) Lupe, Marta and Roberto
11. If Freddy sits immediately beside Vicky, which of the following cannot be true ?
a. Jonathan sits immediately beside Sarah
b. Lupe sits immediately beside Vicky
c. Hillary sits in the front passenger seat
d. Freddy sits on the same bench as Hillary
e. Hillary sits on the same bench as Roberto
12. If Sarah sits on a bench that is behind where Jonathan is sitting, which of the following must be
true ?
a. Hillary sits in a seat or on a bench that is in front of where Marta is sitting
b. Lupe sits in a seat or on a bench that is in front of where Freddy is sitting
c. Freddy sits on the same bench as Hillary
d. Lupe sits on the same bench as Sarah
e. Marta sits on the same bench as Vicky
13. Make six squares of the same size using twelve match-sticks. (Hint : You will need an adhesive to
arrange the required figure)
14. A farmer has two rectangular fields. The larger field has twice the length and 4 times the width of
the smaller field. If the smaller field has area K, then the are of the larger field is greater than
the area of the smaller field by what amount?
(a) 6K (b) 8K (c) 12K (d) 7K
15. Nine equal circles are enclosed in a square whose area is 36sq units. Find the area of each circle.
16. There are 9 cards. Arrange them in a 3*3 matrix. Cards are of 4 colors. They are red, yellow,
blue, green. Conditions for arrangement: one red card must be in first row or second row. 2
green cards should be in 3rd column. Yellow cards must be in the 3 corners only. Two blue cards
must be in the 2nd row. At least one green card in each row.
17. Is z less than w? z and w are real numbers.
(I) z2 = 25
(II) w = 9
To answer the question,
a) Either I or II is sufficient
b) Both I and II are sufficient but neither of them is alone sufficient
c) I & II are sufficient
d) Both are not sufficient
18. A speaks truth 70% of the time; B speaks truth 80% of the time. What is the probability that
both are contradicting each other?
19. In a family 7 children don't eat spinach, 6 don't eat carrot, 5 don't eat beans, 4 don't eat spinach
& carrots, 3 don't eat carrot & beans, 2 don't eat beans & spinach. One doesn't eat all 3. Find the
no. of children.
20. Anna, Bena, Catherina and Diana are at their monthly business meeting. Their occupations are
author, biologist, chemist and doctor, but not necessarily in that order. Diana just told the
neighbour, who is a biologist that Catherina was on her way with doughnuts. Anna is sitting
across from the doctor and next to the chemist. The doctor was thinking that Bena was a good
name for parent's to choose, but didn't say anything. What is each person's occupation?
UNIX Concepts
1. How are devices represented in UNIX?
All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory.
Thus, device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. A 'regular file' is just an
ordinary data file in the disk. A 'block special file' represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk
(data transfer in terms of blocks). A 'character special file' represents a device with characteristics similar
to a keyboard (data transfer is by stream of bits in sequential order).
2. What is 'inode'?
All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called 'inode'. The inode contains info
about the file-size, its location, time of last access, time of last modification, permission and so on.
Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. In addition to descriptions about
the file, the inode contains pointers to the data blocks of the file. If the file is large, inode has indirect
pointer to a block of pointers to additional data blocks (this further aggregates for larger files). A block is
typically 8k.
Inode consists of the following fields:
 File owner identifier
 File type
 File access permissions
 File access times
 Number of links
 File size
 Location of the file data
3. Brief about the directory representation in UNIX
A Unix directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. A directory
is a special file that the kernel maintains. Only kernel modifies directories, but processes can read
directories. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. When new
directories are created, kernel makes two entries named '.' (refers to the directory itself) and '..' (refers to
parent directory).
System call for creating directory is mkdir (pathname, mode).
4. What are the Unix system calls for I/O?
 open(pathname,flag,mode) - open file
 creat(pathname,mode) - create file
 close(filedes) - close an open file
 read(filedes,buffer,bytes) - read data from an open file
 write(filedes,buffer,bytes) - write data to an open file
 lseek(filedes,offset,from) - position an open file
 dup(filedes) - duplicate an existing file descriptor
 dup2(oldfd,newfd) - duplicate to a desired file descriptor
 fcntl(filedes,cmd,arg) - change properties of an open file
 ioctl(filedes,request,arg) - change the behaviour of an open file
The difference between fcntl anf ioctl is that the former is intended for any open file, while the latter is for
device-specific operations.
5. How do you change File Access Permissions?
Every file has following attributes:
 owner's user ID ( 16 bit integer )
UNIX Concepts
 owner's group ID ( 16 bit integer )
 File access mode word
'r w x -r w x- r w x'
(user permission-group permission-others permission)
r-read, w-write, x-execute
To change the access mode, we use chmod(filename,mode).
Example 1:
To change mode of myfile to 'rw-rw-r--' (ie. read, write permission for user - read,write
permission for group - only read permission for others) we give the args as:
chmod(myfile,0664) .
Each operation is represented by discrete values
'r' is 4
'w' is 2
'x' is 1
Therefore, for 'rw' the value is 6(4+2).
Example 2:
To change mode of myfile to 'rwxr--r--' we give the args as:
6. What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system?
A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. Links can be used to assign more than one name to
a file, but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different
Symbolic link 'is' a file that only contains the name of another file.Operation on the symbolic link
is directed to the file pointed by the it.Both the limitations of links are eliminated in symbolic links.
Commands for linking files are:
Link ln filename1 filename2
Symbolic link ln -s filename1 filename2
7. What is a FIFO?
FIFO are otherwise called as 'named pipes'. FIFO (first-in-first-out) is a special file which is said
to be data transient. Once data is read from named pipe, it cannot be read again. Also, data can be read
only in the order written. It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of
the pipe (producer) and the other reads from the other end (consumer).
8. How do you create special files like named pipes and device files?
The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence.
1. kernel assigns new inode,
2. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe, directory or special file,
3. If it is a device file, it makes the other entries like major, minor device numbers.
For example:
If the device is a disk, major device number refers to the disk controller and minor device
number is the disk.
9. Discuss the mount and unmount system calls
The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file
system; the unmount system call detaches a file system. When you mount another file system on to your
directory, you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The first
argument to mount call is the mount point, that is , a directory in the current file naming system. The
second argument is the file system to mount to that point. When you insert a cdrom to your unix system's
drive, the file system in the cdrom automatically mounts to /dev/cdrom in your system.
10. How does the inode map to data block of a file?
Inode has 13 block addresses. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks
in the file. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. The 12th address points to a two-level
(double in-direction) index block. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block.
This provides a very large maximum file size with efficient access to large files, but also small files are
accessed directly in one disk read.
11. What is a shell?
A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter
commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. The shell converts them to system
calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. System call results and other information
from the OS are presented to the user through an interactive interface. Commonly used shells are
sh,csh,ks etc.
1. Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up.
While booting, special process called the 'swapper' or 'scheduler' is created with Process-ID 0.
The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation. The swapper inturn
creates 3 children:
 the process dispatcher,
 vhand and
 dbflush
with IDs 1,2 and 3 respectively.
This is done by executing the file /etc/init. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. Unix keeps
track of all the processes in an internal data structure called the Process Table (listing command is ps -el).
2. What are various IDs associated with a process?
Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. The process that executes
the request for creation of a process is called the 'parent process' whose PID is 'Parent Process ID'. Every
process is associated with a particular user called the 'owner' who has privileges over the process. The
identification for the user is 'UserID'. Owner is the user who executes the process. Process also has
'Effective User ID' which determines the access privileges for accessing resources like files.
getpid() -process id
getppid() -parent process id
getuid() -user id
geteuid() -effective user id
3. Explain fork() system call.
The `fork()' used to create a new process from an existing process. The new process is called
the child process, and the existing process is called the parent. We can tell which is which by checking the
return value from `fork()'. The parent gets the child's pid returned to him, but the child gets 0 returned
to him.
4. Predict the output of the following program code
printf("Hello World!");
Hello World!Hello World!
The fork creates a child that is a duplicate of the parent process. The child begins from the
fork().All the statements after the call to fork() will be executed twice.(once by the parent process and
other by child). The statement before fork() is executed only by the parent process.
5. Predict the output of the following program code
fork(); fork(); fork();
printf("Hello World!");
"Hello World" will be printed 8 times.
2^n times where n is the number of calls to fork()
6. List the system calls used for process management:
System calls Description
fork() To create a new process
exec() To execute a new program in a process
wait() To wait until a created process completes its execution
exit() To exit from a process execution
getpid() To get a process identifier of the current process
getppid() To get parent process identifier
nice() To bias the existing priority of a process
brk() To increase/decrease the data segment size of a process
7. How can you get/set an environment variable from a program?
Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()'.
Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()'.
8. How can a parent and child process communicate?
A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication
schemes (pipes, sockets, message queues, shared memory), but also have some special ways to
communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. One of the most obvious is
that the parent can get the exit status of the child.
9. What is a zombie?
When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent, the kernel still keeps some of its
information about the child in case the parent might need it - for example, the parent may need to check
the child's exit status. To be able to get this information, the parent calls `wait()'; In the interval between
the child terminating and the parent calling `wait()', the child is said to be a `zombie' (If you do `ps', the
child will have a `Z' in its status field to indicate this.)
10. What are the process states in Unix?
As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Unix processes have the
following states:
Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run .
Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource.
Stopped : The process has been stopped, usually by receiving a signal.
Zombie : The process is dead but have not been removed from the process table.
11. What Happens when you execute a program?
When you execute a program on your UNIX system, the system creates a special environment for
that program. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no
other program were running on the system. Each process has process context, which is everything that is
unique about the state of the program you are currently running. Every time you execute a program the
UNIX system does a fork, which performs a series of operations to create a process context and then
execute your program in that context. The steps include the following:
 Allocate a slot in the process table, a list of currently running programs kept by UNIX.
 Assign a unique process identifier (PID) to the process.
 iCopy the context of the parent, the process that requested the spawning of the new process.
 Return the new PID to the parent process. This enables the parent process to examine or control the
process directly.
After the fork is complete, UNIX runs your program.
12. What Happens when you execute a command?
When you enter 'ls' command to look at the contents of your current working directory, UNIX
does a series of things to create an environment for ls and the run it: The shell has UNIX perform a fork.
This creates a new process that the shell will use to run the ls program. The shell has UNIX perform an
exec of the ls program. This replaces the shell program and data with the program and data for ls and
then starts running that new program. The ls program is loaded into the new process context, replacing
the text and data of the shell. The ls program performs its task, listing the contents of the current
13. What is a Daemon?
A daemon is a process that detaches itself from the terminal and runs, disconnected, in the
background, waiting for requests and responding to them. It can also be defined as the background
process that does not belong to a terminal session. Many system functions are commonly performed by
daemons, including the sendmail daemon, which handles mail, and the NNTP daemon, which handles
USENET news. Many other daemons may exist. Some of the most common daemons are:
 init: Takes over the basic running of the system when the kernel has finished the boot process.
 inetd: Responsible for starting network services that do not have their own stand-alone daemons. For
example, inetd usually takes care of incoming rlogin, telnet, and ftp connections.
 cron: Responsible for running repetitive tasks on a regular schedule.
14. What is 'ps' command for?
The ps command prints the process status for some or all of the running processes. The
information given are the process identification number (PID),the amount of time that the process has
taken to execute so far etc.
15. How would you kill a process?
The kill command takes the PID as one argument; this identifies which process to terminate. The
PID of a process can be got using 'ps' command.
16. What is an advantage of executing a process in background?
The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something
else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. At the end of the command you add the
special background symbol, &. This symbol tells your shell to execute the given command in the
Example: cp *.* ../backup& (cp is for copy)
17. How do you execute one program from within another?
The system calls used for low-level process creation are execlp() and execvp(). The execlp call
overlays the existing program with the new one , runs that and exits. The original program gets back
control only when an error occurs.
execlp(path,file_name,arguments..); //last argument must be NULL
A variant of execlp called execvp is used when the number of arguments is not known in advance.
execvp(path,argument_array); //argument array should be terminated by NULL
18. What is IPC? What are the various schemes available?
The term IPC (Inter-Process Communication) describes various ways by which different process
running on some operating system communicate between each other. Various schemes available are as
One-way communication scheme through which different process can communicate. The
problem is that the two processes should have a common ancestor (parent-child relationship).
However this problem was fixed with the introduction of named-pipes (FIFO).
Message Queues :
Message queues can be used between related and unrelated processes running on a
Shared Memory:
This is the fastest of all IPC schemes. The memory to be shared is mapped into the
address space of the processes (that are sharing). The speed achieved is attributed to the fact
that there is no kernel involvement. But this scheme needs synchronization.
Various forms of synchronisation are mutexes, condition-variables, read-write locks, recordlocks,
and semaphores.
1. What is the difference between Swapping and Paging?
Whole process is moved from the swap device to the main memory for execution.
Process size must be less than or equal to the available main memory. It is easier to implementation and
overhead to the system. Swapping systems does not handle the memory more flexibly as compared to the
paging systems.
Only the required memory pages are moved to main memory from the swap device for
execution. Process size does not matter. Gives the concept of the virtual memory.
It provides greater flexibility in mapping the virtual address space into the physical memory of
the machine. Allows more number of processes to fit in the main memory simultaneously. Allows the
greater process size than the available physical memory. Demand paging systems handle the memory
more flexibly.
2. What is major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in
terms of Memory Management?
Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap
device, whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the
main memory. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices.
3. What is the main goal of the Memory Management?
 It decides which process should reside in the main memory,
 Manages the parts of the virtual address space of a process which is non-core resident,
 Monitors the available main memory and periodically write the processes into the swap device to
provide more processes fit in the main memory simultaneously.
4. What is a Map?
A Map is an Array, which contains the addresses of the free space in the swap device that are
allocatable resources, and the number of the resource units available there.
This allows First-Fit allocation of contiguous blocks of a resource. Initially the Map contains one
entry – address (block offset from the starting of the swap area) and the total number of resources.
Kernel treats each unit of Map as a group of disk blocks. On the allocation and freeing of the
resources Kernel updates the Map for accurate information.
5. What scheme does the Kernel in Unix System V follow while choosing a swap device among the
multiple swap devices?
Kernel follows Round Robin scheme choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices in
Unix System V.
6. What is a Region?
A Region is a continuous area of a process’s address space (such as text, data and stack). The
kernel in a ‘Region Table’ that is local to the process maintains region. Regions are sharable among the
7. What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory?
When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory, it performs the following:
 Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. If the reference count
becomes zero, swaps the region out of the main memory,
 Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device,
 Kernel locks the other swapping process while the current swapping operation is going on,
 The Kernel saves the swap address of the region in the region table.
8. Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason.
Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form. The regions (text,
data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process, there may be few empty slots in any of the
regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process out.
After swapping the process resides in the swap (secondary memory) device. The regions
swapped out will be present but only the occupied region slots but not the empty slots that were present
before assigning.
While swapping the process once again into the main memory, the Kernel referring to the Process
Memory Map, it assigns the main memory accordingly taking care of the empty slots in the regions.
9. What do you mean by u-area (user area) or u-block?
This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel. This is local to the Process,
i.e. each process is allocated a u-area.
10. What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of
the main memory?
All memory space occupied by the process, process’s u-area, and Kernel stack are swapped out,
Practically, if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then
Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area.
11. What is Fork swap?
fork() is a system call to create a child process. When the parent process calls fork() system call,
the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-torun
state in the swap device, and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. When the
memory will be available the child process will be swapped into the main memory.
12. What is Expansion swap?
At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated, the Kernel
performs Expansion swap. To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. Then the address
translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not
1 10,000
Address Units
allocated. At last Kernel swaps the process into the assigned space in the swap device. Later when the
Kernel swaps the process into the main memory this assigns memory according to the new address
translation mapping.
13. How the Swapper works?
The swapper is the only process that swaps the processes. The Swapper operates only in the
Kernel mode and it does not uses System calls instead it uses internal Kernel functions for swapping. It is
the archetype of all kernel process.
14. What are the processes that are not bothered by the swapper? Give Reason.
 Zombie process: They do not take any up physical memory.
 Processes locked in memories that are updating the region of the process.
 Kernel swaps only the sleeping processes rather than the ‘ready-to-run’ processes, as they
have the higher probability of being scheduled than the Sleeping processes.
15. What are the requirements for a swapper to work?
The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process,
if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. But the major requirement for the
swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for at least 2 seconds before swapping
out. And for swapping in the process must have been resided in the swap device for at least 2 seconds. If
the requirement is not satisfied then the swapper will go into the wait state on that event and it is awaken
once in a second by the Kernel.
16. What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping into memory from the swap device?
The resident time of the processes in the swap device, the priority of the processes and the
amount of time the processes had been swapped out.
17. What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping out of the memory to the swap device?
 The process’s memory resident time,
 Priority of the process and
 The nice value.
18. What do you mean by nice value?
Nice value is the value that controls {increments or decrements} the priority of the process. This
value that is returned by the nice () system call. The equation for using nice value is:
Priority = (“recent CPU usage”/constant) + (base- priority) + (nice value)
Only the administrator can supply the nice value. The nice () system call works for the running
process only. Nice value of one process cannot affect the nice value of the other process.
19. What are conditions on which deadlock can occur while swapping the processes?
 All processes in the main memory are asleep.
 All ‘ready-to-run’ processes are swapped out.
 There is no space in the swap device for the new incoming process that are swapped out
of the main memory.
 There is no space in the main memory for the new incoming process.
20. What are conditions for a machine to support Demand Paging?
 Memory architecture must based on Pages,
 The machine must support the ‘restartable’ instructions.
21. What is ‘the principle of locality’?
It’s the nature of the processes that they refer only to the small subset of the total data space of
the process. i.e. the process frequently calls the same subroutines or executes the loop instructions.
22. What is the working set of a process?
The set of pages that are referred by the process in the last ‘n’, references, where ‘n’ is called the
window of the working set of the process.
23. What is the window of the working set of a process?
The window of the working set of a process is the total number in which the process had referred
the set of pages in the working set of the process.
24. What is called a page fault?
Page fault is referred to the situation when the process addresses a page in the working set of
the process but the process fails to locate the page in the working set. And on a page fault the kernel
updates the working set by reading the page from the secondary device.
25. What are data structures that are used for Demand Paging?
Kernel contains 4 data structures for Demand paging. They are,
 Page table entries,
 Disk block descriptors,
 Page frame data table (pfdata),
 Swap-use table.
26. What are the bits that support the demand paging?
Valid, Reference, Modify, Copy on write, Age. These bits are the part of the page table entry,
which includes physical address of the page and protection bits.
Page address Age Copy on
Modify Reference Valid Protection
27. How the Kernel handles the fork() system call in traditional Unix and in the System V Unix, while
Kernel in traditional Unix, makes the duplicate copy of the parent’s address space and attaches it
to the child’s process, while swapping. Kernel in System V Unix, manipulates the region tables, page table,
and pfdata table entries, by incrementing the reference count of the region table of shared regions.
28. Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call?
During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and
attaches it to the child process.
But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space, so it is faster
than the fork() system call. The child process as a result of the vfork() system call executes exec() system
call. The child process from vfork() system call executes in the parent’s address space (this can overwrite
the parent’s data and stack ) which suspends the parent process until the child process exits.
29. What is BSS(Block Started by Symbol)?
A data representation at the machine level, that has initial values when a program starts and tells
about how much space the kernel allocates for the un-initialized data. Kernel initializes it to zero at runtime.
30. What is Page-Stealer process?
This is the Kernel process that makes rooms for the incoming pages, by swapping the memory
pages that are not the part of the working set of a process. Page-Stealer is created by the Kernel at the
system initialization and invokes it throughout the lifetime of the system. Kernel locks a region when a
process faults on a page in the region, so that page stealer cannot steal the page, which is being faulted
31. Name two paging states for a page in memory?
The two paging states are:
 The page is aging and is not yet eligible for swapping,
 The page is eligible for swapping but not yet eligible for reassignment to other virtual address space.
32. What are the phases of swapping a page from the memory?
 Page stealer finds the page eligible for swapping and places the page number in the list
of pages to be swapped.
 Kernel copies the page to a swap device when necessary and clears the valid bit in the
page table entry, decrements the pfdata reference count, and places the pfdata table entry
at the end of the free list if its reference count is 0.
33. What is page fault? Its types?
Page fault refers to the situation of not having a page in the main memory when any process
references it.
There are two types of page fault :
 Validity fault,
 Protection fault.
34. In what way the Fault Handlers and the Interrupt handlers are different?
Fault handlers are also an interrupt handler with an exception that the interrupt handlers cannot
sleep. Fault handlers sleep in the context of the process that caused the memory fault. The fault refers to
the running process and no arbitrary processes are put to sleep.
35. What is validity fault?
If a process referring a page in the main memory whose valid bit is not set, it results in validity
The valid bit is not set for those pages:
 that are outside the virtual address space of a process,
 that are the part of the virtual address space of the process but no physical address is assigned to it.
36. What does the swapping system do if it identifies the illegal page for swapping?
If the disk block descriptor does not contain any record of the faulted page, then this causes the
attempted memory reference is invalid and the kernel sends a “Segmentation violation” signal to the
offending process. This happens when the swapping system identifies any invalid memory reference.
37. What are states that the page can be in, after causing a page fault?
 On a swap device and not in memory,
 On the free page list in the main memory,
 In an executable file,
 Marked “demand zero”,
 Marked “demand fill”.
38. In what way the validity fault handler concludes?
 It sets the valid bit of the page by clearing the modify bit.
 It recalculates the process priority.
39. At what mode the fault handler executes?
At the Kernel Mode.
40. What do you mean by the protection fault?
Protection fault refers to the process accessing the pages, which do not have the access
permission. A process also incur the protection fault when it attempts to write a page whose copy on write
bit was set during the fork() system call.
41. How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page, when the bit is set?
In situations like, where the copy on write bit of a page is set and that page is shared by more
than one process, the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other
processes retain their references to the old page. After copying the Kernel updates the page table entry
with the new page number. Then Kernel decrements the reference count of the old pfdata table entry.
In cases like, where the copy on write bit is set and no processes are sharing the page, the
Kernel allows the physical page to be reused by the processes. By doing so, it clears the copy on write bit
and disassociates the page from its disk copy (if one exists), because other process may share the disk
copy. Then it removes the pfdata table entry from the page-queue as the new copy of the virtual page is
not on the swap device. It decrements the swap-use count for the page and if count drops to 0, frees the
swap space.
42. For which kind of fault the page is checked first?
The page is first checked for the validity fault, as soon as it is found that the page is invalid (valid
bit is clear), the validity fault handler returns immediately, and the process incur the validity page fault.
Kernel handles the validity fault and the process will incur the protection fault if any one is present.
43. In what way the protection fault handler concludes?
After finishing the execution of the fault handler, it sets the modify and protection bits and clears
the copy on write bit. It recalculates the process-priority and checks for signals.
44. How the Kernel handles both the page stealer and the fault handler?
The page stealer and the fault handler thrash because of the shortage of the memory. If the sum
of the working sets of all processes is greater that the physical memory then the fault handler will usually
sleep because it cannot allocate pages for a process. This results in the reduction of the system
throughput because Kernel spends too much time in overhead, rearranging the memory in the frantic
1. What is database?
A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning, representing
some aspect of real world and which is designed, built and populated with data for a specific purpose.
2. What is DBMS?
It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database. In other words
it is general-purpose software that provides the users with the processes of defining, constructing and
manipulating the database for various applications.
3. What is a Database system?
The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system.
4. Advantages of DBMS?
 Redundancy is controlled.
 Unauthorised access is restricted.
 Providing multiple user interfaces.
 Enforcing integrity constraints.
 Providing backup and recovery.
5. Disadvantage in File Processing System?
 Data redundancy & inconsistency.
 Difficult in accessing data.
 Data isolation.
 Data integrity.
 Concurrent access is not possible.
 Security Problems.
6. Describe the three levels of data abstraction?
The are three levels of abstraction:
 Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored.
 Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction, describes what data are stored in database and
what relationship among those data.
 View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database.
7. Define the "integrity rules"
There are two Integrity rules.
 Entity Integrity: States that “Primary key cannot have NULL value”
 Referential Integrity: States that “Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or
should be Primary Key value of other relation.
8. What is extension and intension?
Extension -
It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. This is time dependent.
Intension -
It is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on
9. What is System R? What are its two major subsystems?
System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San Jose Research
Center. It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that it is possible to build a Relational
System that can be used in a real life environment to solve real life problems, with performance at least
comparable to that of existing system.
Its two subsystems are
RDBMS Concepts
 Research Storage
 System Relational Data System.
10. How is the data structure of System R different from the relational structure?
Unlike Relational systems in System R
 Domains are not supported
 Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional
 Enforcement of entity integrity is optional
 Referential integrity is not enforced
11. What is Data Independence?
Data independence means that “the application is independent of the storage structure and
access strategy of data”. In other words, The ability to modify the schema definition in one level should not
affect the schema definition in the next higher level.
Two types of Data Independence:
 Physical Data Independence: Modification in physical level should not affect the
logical level.
 Logical Data Independence: Modification in logical level should affect the view
NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve
12. What is a view? How it is related to data independence?
A view may be thought of as a virtual table, that is, a table that does not really exist in its own
right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table. In other words, there is no stored file
that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary.
Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views. Thus the view can insulate
users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database. Hence accounts for logical data
13. What is Data Model?
A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships data semantics and
14. What is E-R model?
This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of
relationship among these objects. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes.
15. What is Object Oriented model?
This model is based on collection of objects. An object contains values stored in instance
variables with in the object. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. These
bodies of code are called methods. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are
grouped together into classes.
16. What is an Entity?
It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence.
17. What is an Entity type?
It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes.
18. What is an Entity set?
It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database.
19. What is an Extension of entity type?
The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into an entity set.
20. What is Weak Entity set?
An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key, and its primary key
compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity, then it is said to be Weak Entity set.
21. What is an attribute?
It is a particular property, which describes the entity.
22. What is a Relation Schema and a Relation?
A relation Schema denoted by R(A1, A2, …, An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of
attributes Ai that it contains. A relation is defined as a set of tuples. Let r be the relation which contains
set tuples (t1, t2, t3, ..., tn). Each tuple is an ordered list of n-values t=(v1,v2, ..., vn).
23. What is degree of a Relation?
It is the number of attribute of its relation schema.
24. What is Relationship?
It is an association among two or more entities.
25. What is Relationship set?
The collection (or set) of similar relationships.
26. What is Relationship type?
Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a given set of entity
27. What is degree of Relationship type?
It is the number of entity type participating.
25. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)?
A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called
26. What is VDL (View Definition Language)?
It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema.
27. What is SDL (Storage Definition Language)?
This language is to specify the internal schema. This language may specify the mapping between
two schemas.
28. What is Data Storage - Definition Language?
The storage structures and access methods used by database system are specified by a set of
definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-definition language.
29. What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)?
This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data
 Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get
those data.
 Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without
specifying how to get those data.
31. What is DML Compiler?
It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query
evaluation engine can understand.
32. What is Query evaluation engine?
It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler.
33. What is DDL Interpreter?
It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata.
34. What is Record-at-a-time?
The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a set of records. This
retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time.
35. What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented?
The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records in a single DML
statement. This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented.
36. What is Relational Algebra?
It is procedural query language. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations
as input and produce a new relation.
37. What is Relational Calculus?
It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases proposed by E.F.
Codd. E.g. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA, QUEL.
38. How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-oriented relational calculus
The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i.e., variable whose only permitted values are
tuples of that relation. E.g. QUEL
The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i.e., variables that range over the underlying domains
instead of over relation. E.g. ILL, DEDUCE.
39. What is normalization?
It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies
(FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties
 Minimizing redundancy
 Minimizing insertion, deletion and update anomalies.
40. What is Functional Dependency?
A Functional dependency is denoted by XY between two sets of attributes X and Y that are
subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R. The
constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. This means
the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y.
41. When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal?
 Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side.
 We cannot replace any dependency XA in F with a dependency YA where Y is a proper subset of X
and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to F.
 We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency that is equivalent to F.
42. What is Multivalued dependency?
Multivalued dependency denoted by XY specified on relation schema R, where X and Y are both
subsets of R, specifies the following constraint on any relation r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such
that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4 should also exist in r with the following properties
 t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X]
 t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y]
 t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z]
where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ]
43. What is Lossless join property?
It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas
after decomposition.
44. What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?
The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple, indivisible) values.
45. What is Fully Functional dependency?
It is based on concept of full functional dependency. A functional dependency XY is full
functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any
46. What is 2NF?
A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully
functionally dependent on primary key.
47. What is 3NF?
A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD XA either of the following is true
 X is a Super-key of R.
 A is a prime attribute of R.
In other words, if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key.
48. What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?
A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional constraint that for every
FD XA, X must be a candidate key.
49. What is 4NF?
A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency XY that holds over
R, one of following is true
 X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R.
 X is a super key.
50. What is 5NF?
A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1, R2, ..., Rn} that holds
R, one the following is true
 Ri = R for some i.
 The join dependency is implied by the set of FD, over R in which the left side is key of R.
51. What is Domain-Key Normal Form?
A relation is said to be in DKNF if all constraints and dependencies that should hold on the the
constraint can be enforced by simply enforcing the domain constraint and key constraint on the
52. What are partial, alternate,, artificial, compound and natural key?
Partial Key:
It is a set of attributes that can uniquely identify weak entities and that are related to same
owner entity. It is sometime called as Discriminator.
Alternate Key:
All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys.
Artificial Key:
If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to
simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. Then this is known as
developing an artificial key.
Compound Key:
If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct, then
combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a
compound key.
Natural Key:
When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key,
then it is called the natural key.
53. What is indexing and what are the different kinds of indexing?
Indexing is a technique for determining how quickly specific data can be found.
 Binary search style indexing
 B-Tree indexing
 Inverted list indexing
 Memory resident table
 Table indexing
54. What is system catalog or catalog relation? How is better known as?
A RDBMS maintains a description of all the data that it contains, information about every relation
and index that it contains. This information is stored in a collection of relations maintained by the system
called metadata. It is also called data dictionary.
55. What is meant by query optimization?
The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least
estimated cost is referred to as query optimization.
56. What is join dependency and inclusion dependency?
Join Dependency:
A Join dependency is generalization of Multivalued dependency.A JD {R1,
R2, ..., Rn} is said to hold over a relation R if R1, R2, R3, ..., Rn is a lossless-join decomposition of R .
There is no set of sound and complete inference rules for JD.
Inclusion Dependency:
An Inclusion Dependency is a statement of the form that some columns of a relation are
contained in other columns. A foreign key constraint is an example of inclusion dependency.
57. What is durability in DBMS?
Once the DBMS informs the user that a transaction has successfully completed, its effects should
persist even if the system crashes before all its changes are reflected on disk. This property is called
58. What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?
Either all actions are carried out or none are. Users should not have to worry about the
effect of incomplete transactions. DBMS ensures this by undoing the actions of incomplete transactions.
A concept which is used to model a relationship between a collection of entities and
relationships. It is used when we need to express a relationship among relationships.
59. What is a Phantom Deadlock?
In distributed deadlock detection, the delay in propagating local information might cause the
deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not really exist. Such situations are called
phantom deadlocks and they lead to unnecessary aborts.
60. What is a checkpoint and When does it occur?
A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. By taking checkpoints, the DBMS can reduce
the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes.
61. What are the different phases of transaction?
Different phases are
 Analysis phase
 Redo Phase
 Undo phase
62. What do you mean by flat file database?
It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages. It has no cross-file
capabilities but is user-friendly and provides user-interface management.
63. What is "transparent DBMS"?
It is one, which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user.
64. Brief theory of Network, Hierarchical schemas and their properties
Network schema uses a graph data structure to organize records example for such a database
management system is CTCG while a hierarchical schema uses a tree data structure example for such a
system is IMS.
65. What is a query?
A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a data
base. The query language can be classified into data definition language and data manipulation language.
66. What do you mean by Correlated subquery?
Subqueries, or nested queries, are used to bring back a set of rows to be used by the parent
query. Depending on how the subquery is written, it can be executed once for the parent query or it can
be executed once for each row returned by the parent query. If the subquery is executed for each row of
the parent, this is called a correlated subquery.
A correlated subquery can be easily identified if it contains any references to the parent subquery
columns in its WHERE clause. Columns from the subquery cannot be referenced anywhere else in the
parent query. The following example demonstrates a non-correlated subquery.
E.g. Select * From CUST Where '10/03/1990' IN (Select ODATE From ORDER Where CUST.CNUM =
67. What are the primitive operations common to all record management systems?
Addition, deletion and modification.
68. Name the buffer in which all the commands that are typed in are stored
‘Edit’ Buffer
69. What are the unary operations in Relational Algebra?
70. Are the resulting relations of PRODUCT and JOIN operation the same?
PRODUCT: Concatenation of every row in one relation with every row in another.
JOIN: Concatenation of rows from one relation and related rows from another.
71. What is RDBMS KERNEL?
Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data
dictionary, which consists of the system-level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database
You might think of an RDBMS as an operating system (or set of subsystems), designed
specifically for controlling data access; its primary functions are storing, retrieving, and securing data. An
RDBMS maintains its own list of authorized users and their associated privileges; manages memory caches
and paging; controls locking for concurrent resource usage; dispatches and schedules user requests; and
manages space usage within its table-space structures
72. Name the sub-systems of a RDBMS
I/O, Security, Language Processing, Process Control, Storage Management, Logging and
Recovery, Distribution Control, Transaction Control, Memory Management, Lock Management
73. Which part of the RDBMS takes care of the data dictionary? How
Data dictionary is a set of tables and database objects that is stored in a special area of the
database and maintained exclusively by the kernel.
74. What is the job of the information stored in data-dictionary?
The information in the data dictionary validates the existence of the objects, provides access to
them, and maps the actual physical storage location.
75. Not only RDBMS takes care of locating data it also
determines an optimal access path to store or retrieve the data
76. How do you communicate with an RDBMS?
You communicate with an RDBMS using Structured Query Language (SQL)
77. Define SQL and state the differences between SQL and other conventional programming Languages
SQL is a nonprocedural language that is designed specifically for data access operations on
normalized relational database structures. The primary difference between SQL and other conventional
programming languages is that SQL statements specify what data operations should be performed rather
than how to perform them.
78. Name the three major set of files on disk that compose a database in Oracle
There are three major sets of files on disk that compose a database. All the files are binary.
These are
 Database files
 Control files
 Redo logs
The most important of these are the database files where the actual data resides. The control
files and the redo logs support the functioning of the architecture itself.
All three sets of files must be present, open, and available to Oracle for any data on the database
to be useable. Without these files, you cannot access the database, and the database administrator might
have to recover some or all of the database using a backup, if there is one.
79. What is an Oracle Instance?
The Oracle system processes, also known as Oracle background processes, provide functions for
the user processes—functions that would otherwise be done by the user processes themselves
Oracle database-wide system memory is known as the SGA, the system global area or shared
global area. The data and control structures in the SGA are shareable, and all the Oracle background
processes and user processes can use them.
The combination of the SGA and the Oracle background processes is known as an Oracle instance
80. What are the four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to
be useable
The four Oracle system processes that must always be up and running for the database to be
useable include DBWR (Database Writer), LGWR (Log Writer), SMON (System Monitor), and PMON
(Process Monitor).
81. What are database files, control files and log files. How many of these files should a database have at
least? Why?
Database Files
The database files hold the actual data and are typically the largest in size. Depending
on their sizes, the tables (and other objects) for all the user accounts can go in one database file—but
that's not an ideal situation because it does not make the database structure very flexible for controlling
access to storage for different users, putting the database on different disk drives, or backing up and
restoring just part of the database.
You must have at least one database file but usually, more than one files are used. In
terms of accessing and using the data in the tables and other objects, the number (or location) of the files
is immaterial.
The database files are fixed in size and never grow bigger than the size at which they
were created
Control Files
The control files and redo logs support the rest of the architecture. Any database must
have at least one control file, although you typically have more than one to guard against loss. The control
file records the name of the database, the date and time it was created, the location of the database and
redo logs, and the synchronization information to ensure that all three sets of files are always in step.
Every time you add a new database or redo log file to the database, the information is recorded in the
control files.
Redo Logs
Any database must have at least two redo logs. These are the journals for the database;
the redo logs record all changes to the user objects or system objects. If any type of failure occurs, the
changes recorded in the redo logs can be used to bring the database to a consistent state without losing
any committed transactions. In the case of non-data loss failure, Oracle can apply the information in the
redo logs automatically without intervention from the DBA.
The redo log files are fixed in size and never grow dynamically from the size at which
they were created.
82. What is ROWID?
The ROWID is a unique database-wide physical address for every row on every table. Once
assigned (when the row is first inserted into the database), it never changes until the row is deleted or the
table is dropped.
The ROWID consists of the following three components, the combination of which uniquely
identifies the physical storage location of the row.
 Oracle database file number, which contains the block with the rows
 Oracle block address, which contains the row
 The row within the block (because each block can hold many rows)
The ROWID is used internally in indexes as a quick means of retrieving rows with a particular key
value. Application developers also use it in SQL statements as a quick way to access a row once they
know the ROWID
83. What is Oracle Block? Can two Oracle Blocks have the same address?
Oracle "formats" the database files into a number of Oracle blocks when they are first created—
making it easier for the RDBMS software to manage the files and easier to read data into the memory
The block size should be a multiple of the operating system block size. Regardless of the block
size, the entire block is not available for holding data; Oracle takes up some space to manage the
contents of the block. This block header has a minimum size, but it can grow.
These Oracle blocks are the smallest unit of storage. Increasing the Oracle block size can improve
performance, but it should be done only when the database is first created.
Each Oracle block is numbered sequentially for each database file starting at 1. Two blocks can
have the same block address if they are in different database files.
84. What is database Trigger?
A database trigger is a PL/SQL block that can defined to automatically execute for insert, update,
and delete statements against a table. The trigger can e defined to execute once for the entire statement
or once for every row that is inserted, updated, or deleted. For any one table, there are twelve events for
which you can define database triggers. A database trigger can call database procedures that are also
written in PL/SQL.
85. Name two utilities that Oracle provides, which are use for backup and recovery.
Along with the RDBMS software, Oracle provides two utilities that you can use to back up and
restore the database. These utilities are Export and Import.
The Export utility dumps the definitions and data for the specified part of the database to an
operating system binary file. The Import utility reads the file produced by an export, recreates the
definitions of objects, and inserts the data
If Export and Import are used as a means of backing up and recovering the database, all the
changes made to the database cannot be recovered since the export was performed. The best you can do
is recover the database to the time when the export was last performed.
86. What are stored-procedures? And what are the advantages of using them.
Stored procedures are database objects that perform a user defined operation. A stored
procedure can have a set of compound SQL statements. A stored procedure executes the SQL commands
and returns the result to the client. Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic.
87. How are exceptions handled in PL/SQL? Give some of the internal exceptions' name
PL/SQL exception handling is a mechanism for dealing with run-time errors encountered during
procedure execution. Use of this mechanism enables execution to continue if the error is not severe
enough to cause procedure termination.
The exception handler must be defined within a subprogram specification. Errors cause the
program to raise an exception with a transfer of control to the exception-handler block. After the
exception handler executes, control returns to the block in which the handler was defined. If there are no
more executable statements in the block, control returns to the caller.
User-Defined Exceptions
PL/SQL enables the user to define exception handlers in the declarations area of
subprogram specifications. User accomplishes this by naming an exception as in the following example:
ot_failure EXCEPTION;
In this case, the exception name is ot_failure. Code associated with this handler is written in the
EXCEPTION specification area as follows:
when OT_FAILURE then
out_status_code := g_out_status_code;
out_msg := g_out_msg;
The following is an example of a subprogram exception:
when NO_DATA_FOUND then
g_out_status_code := 'FAIL';
RAISE ot_failure;
Within this exception is the RAISE statement that transfers control back to the ot_failure exception
handler. This technique of raising the exception is used to invoke all user-defined exceptions.
System-Defined Exceptions
Exceptions internal to PL/SQL are raised automatically upon error. NO_DATA_FOUND is a
system-defined exception. Table below gives a complete list of internal exceptions.
PL/SQL internal exceptions.
Exception Name Oracle Error
In addition to this list of exceptions, there is a catch-all exception named OTHERS that traps all
errors for which specific error handling has not been established.
88. Does PL/SQL support "overloading"? Explain
The concept of overloading in PL/SQL relates to the idea that you can define procedures and
functions with the same name. PL/SQL does not look only at the referenced name, however, to resolve a
procedure or function call. The count and data types of formal parameters are also considered.
PL/SQL also attempts to resolve any procedure or function calls in locally defined packages before
looking at globally defined packages or internal functions. To further ensure calling the proper procedure,
you can use the dot notation. Prefacing a procedure or function name with the package name fully
qualifies any procedure or function reference.
89. Tables derived from the ERD
a) Are totally unnormalised
b) Are always in 1NF
c) Can be further denormalised
d) May have multi-valued attributes
(b) Are always in 1NF
90. Spurious tuples may occur due to
i. Bad normalization
ii. Theta joins
iii. Updating tables from join
a) i & ii b) ii & iii
c) i & iii d) ii & iii
(a) i & iii because theta joins are joins made on keys that are not primary keys.
91. A B C is a set of attributes. The functional dependency is as follows
AB -> B
AC -> C
C -> B
a) is in 1NF
b) is in 2NF
c) is in 3NF
d) is in BCNF
(a) is in 1NF since (AC)+ = { A, B, C} hence AC is the primary key. Since CB is a FD given,
where neither C is a Key nor B is a prime attribute, this it is not in 3NF. Further B is not functionally
dependent on key AC thus it is not in 2NF. Thus the given FDs is in 1NF.
92. In mapping of ERD to DFD
a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD
b) entity in DFD is converted to attributes of an entity in ERD
c) relations in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to processes in DFD
d) relationships in ERD has 1 to 1 correspondence to flows in DFD
(a) entities in ERD should correspond to an existing entity/store in DFD
93. A dominant entity is the entity
a) on the N side in a 1 : N relationship
b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship
c) on either side in a 1 : 1 relationship
d) nothing to do with 1 : 1 or 1 : N relationship
(b) on the 1 side in a 1 : N relationship
94. Select 'NORTH', CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'N' Order By
The above is
a) Not an error
b) Error - the string in single quotes 'NORTH' and 'SOUTH'
c) Error - the string should be in double quotes
d) Error - ORDER BY clause
(d) Error - the ORDER BY clause. Since ORDER BY clause cannot be used in UNIONS
95. What is Storage Manager?
It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in database,
application programs and queries submitted to the system.
96. What is Buffer Manager?
It is a program module, which is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main
memory and deciding what data to be cache in memory.
97. What is Transaction Manager?
It is a program module, which ensures that database, remains in a consistent state despite
system failures and concurrent transaction execution proceeds without conflicting.
98. What is File Manager?
It is a program module, which manages the allocation of space on disk storage and data structure
used to represent information stored on a disk.
99. What is Authorization and Integrity manager?
It is the program module, which tests for the satisfaction of integrity constraint and checks the
authority of user to access data.
100. What are stand-alone procedures?
Procedures that are not part of a package are known as stand-alone because they independently
defined. A good example of a stand-alone procedure is one written in a SQL*Forms application. These
types of procedures are not available for reference from other Oracle tools. Another limitation of standalone
procedures is that they are compiled at run time, which slows execution.
101. What are cursors give different types of cursors.
PL/SQL uses cursors for all database information accesses statements. The language
supports the use two types of cursors
 Implicit
 Explicit
102. What is cold backup and hot backup (in case of Oracle)?
 Cold Backup:
It is copying the three sets of files (database files, redo logs, and control file) when
the instance is shut down. This is a straight file copy, usually from the disk directly to tape. You must shut
down the instance to guarantee a consistent copy.
If a cold backup is performed, the only option available in the event of data file loss
is restoring all the files from the latest backup. All work performed on the database since the last backup
is lost.
 Hot Backup:
Some sites (such as worldwide airline reservations systems) cannot shut down the
database while making a backup copy of the files. The cold backup is not an available option.
So different means of backing up database must be used — the hot backup. Issue a
SQL command to indicate to Oracle, on a tablespace-by-tablespace basis, that the files of the tablespace
are to backed up. The users can continue to make full use of the files, including making changes to the
data. Once the user has indicated that he/she wants to back up the tablespace files, he/she can use the
operating system to copy those files to the desired backup destination.
The database must be running in ARCHIVELOG mode for the hot backup option.
If a data loss failure does occur, the lost database files can be restored using the
hot backup and the online and offline redo logs created since the backup was done. The database is
restored to the most consistent state without any loss of committed transactions.
103. What are Armstrong rules? How do we say that they are complete and/or sound
The well-known inference rules for FDs
 Reflexive rule :
If Y is subset or equal to X then XY.
 Augmentation rule:
If XY then XZYZ.
 Transitive rule:
If {X Y, Y Z} then XZ.
 Decomposition rule :
If XYZ then XY.
 Union or Additive rule:
If {XY, XZ} then XYZ.
 Pseudo Transitive rule :
If {X Y, WYZ} then WXZ.
Of these the first three are known as Amstrong Rules. They are sound because it is enough if a
set of FDs satisfy these three. They are called complete because using these three rules we can generate
the rest all inference rules.
104. How can you find the minimal key of relational schema?
Minimal key is one which can identify each tuple of the given relation schema uniquely. For
finding the minimal key it is required to find the closure that is the set of all attributes that are dependent
on any given set of attributes under the given set of functional dependency.
Algo. I Determining X+, closure for X, given set of FDs F
1. Set X+ = X
2. Set Old X+ = X+
3. For each FD YZ in F and if Y belongs to X+ then add Z to X+
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until Old X+ = X+
Algo.II Determining minimal K for relation schema R, given set of FDs F
1. Set K to R that is make K a set of all attributes in R
2. For each attribute A in K
a. Compute (K – A)+ with respect to F
b. If (K – A)+ = R then set K = (K – A)+
105. What do you understand by dependency preservation?
Given a relation R and a set of FDs F, dependency preservation states that the closure of
the union of the projection of F on each decomposed relation Ri is equal to the closure of F. i.e.,
((P R1(F)) U … U (P Rn(F)))+ = F+
if decomposition is not dependency preserving, then some dependency is lost in the decomposition.
106. What is meant by Proactive, Retroactive and Simultaneous Update.
Proactive Update:
The updates that are applied to database before it becomes effective in real
world .
Retroactive Update:
The updates that are applied to database after it becomes effective in real
world .
Simulatneous Update:
The updates that are applied to database at the same time when it becomes
effective in real world .
107. What are the different types of JOIN operations?
Equi Join: This is the most common type of join which involves only equality
comparisions. The disadvantage in this type of join is that there
1. Which is the subset of SQL commands used to manipulate Oracle Database structures, including
Data Definition Language (DDL)
2. What operator performs pattern matching?
LIKE operator
3. What operator tests column for the absence of data?
IS NULL operator
4. Which command executes the contents of a specified file?
START <filename> or @<filename>
5. What is the parameter substitution symbol used with INSERT INTO command?
6. Which command displays the SQL command in the SQL buffer, and then executes it?
7. What are the wildcards used for pattern matching?
_ for single character substitution and % for multi-character substitution
8. State true or false. EXISTS, SOME, ANY are operators in SQL.
9. State true or false. !=, <>, ^= all denote the same operation.
10. What are the privileges that can be granted on a table by a user to others?
Insert, update, delete, select, references, index, execute, alter, all
11. What command is used to get back the privileges offered by the GRANT command?
12. Which system tables contain information on privileges granted and privileges obtained?
13. Which system table contains information on constraints on all the tables created?
Will the outputs of the above two commands differ?
Both will result in deleting all the rows in the table EMP.
15. What is the difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE commands?
TRUNCATE is a DDL command whereas DELETE is a DML command. Hence DELETE operation can
be rolled back, but TRUNCATE operation cannot be rolled back. WHERE clause can be used with DELETE
and not with TRUNCATE.
16. What command is used to create a table by copying the structure of another table?
Answer :
Explanation :
To copy only the structure, the WHERE clause of the SELECT command should contain a FALSE
statement as in the following.
If the WHERE condition is true, then all the rows or rows satisfying the condition will be copied to
the new table.
17. What will be the output of the following query?
18. What will be the output of the following query?
SELECT DECODE(TRANSLATE('A','1234567890','1111111111'), '1','YES', 'NO' );
Answer :
Explanation :
The query checks whether a given string is a numerical digit.
19. What does the following query do?
This displays the total salary of all employees. The null values in the commission column will be
replaced by 0 and added to salary.
20. Which date function is used to find the difference between two dates?
21. Why does the following command give a compilation error?
Variable names should start with an alphabet. Here the table name starts with an '&' symbol.
22. What is the advantage of specifying WITH GRANT OPTION in the GRANT command?
The privilege receiver can further grant the privileges he/she has obtained from the owner to
any other user.
23. What is the use of the DROP option in the ALTER TABLE command?
It is used to drop constraints specified on the table.
24. What is the value of ‘comm’ and ‘sal’ after executing the following query if the initial value of ‘sal’ is
sal = 11000, comm = 1000
25. What is the use of DESC in SQL?
Answer :
DESC has two purposes. It is used to describe a schema as well as to retrieve rows from table in
descending order.
Explanation :
The query SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME DESC will display the output sorted on ENAME
in descending order.
26. What is the use of CASCADE CONSTRAINTS?
When this clause is used with the DROP command, a parent table can be dropped even when a
child table exists.
27. Which function is used to find the largest integer less than or equal to a specific value?
28. What is the output of the following query?
Table 1 : STUDIES
Table 2 : SOFTWARE
PNAME – Programmer Name, SPLACE – Study Place, CCOST – Course Cost, DEVIN – Developed in,
SCOST – Software Cost, DCOST – Development Cost, PROF1 – Proficiency 1
1. Find out the selling cost average for packages developed in Oracle.
2. Display the names, ages and experience of all programmers.
3. Display the names of those who have done the PGDCA course.
4. What is the highest number of copies sold by a package?
5. Display the names and date of birth of all programmers born in April.
6. Display the lowest course fee.
7. How many programmers have done the DCA course.
8. How much revenue has been earned through the sale of packages developed in C.
9. Display the details of software developed by Rakesh.
10. How many programmers studied at Pentafour.
11. Display the details of packages whose sales crossed the 5000 mark.
12. Find out the number of copies which should be sold in order to recover the development cost of
each package.
13. Display the details of packages for which the development cost has been recovered.
14. What is the price of costliest software developed in VB?
15. How many packages were developed in Oracle ?
16. How many programmers studied at PRAGATHI?
17. How many programmers paid 10000 to 15000 for the course?
18. What is the average course fee?
19. Display the details of programmers knowing C.
20. How many programmers know either C or Pascal?
21. How many programmers don’t know C and C++?
22. How old is the oldest male programmer?
23. What is the average age of female programmers?
24. Calculate the experience in years for each programmer and display along with their names in
descending order.
25. Who are the programmers who celebrate their birthdays during the current month?
26. How many female programmers are there?
27. What are the languages known by the male programmers?
28. What is the average salary?
29. How many people draw 5000 to 7500?
30. Display the details of those who don’t know C, C++ or Pascal.
31. Display the costliest package developed by each programmer.
32. Produce the following output for all the male programmers
Mr. Arvind – has 15 years of experience
= 'M';
= 'F';
32.SELECT 'Mr.' || PNAME || ' - has ' || TRUNC(MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE,DOJ)/12) || ' years of
experience' “Programmer” FROM PROGRAMMER WHERE SEX = 'M' UNION SELECT 'Ms.' || PNAME
|| ' - has ' || TRUNC (MONTHS_BETWEEN (SYSDATE,DOJ)/12) || ' years of experience'
Table 1 : DEPT
Table 2 : EMP
MGR is the empno of the employee whom the employee reports to. DEPTNO is a foreign key.
1. List all the employees who have at least one person reporting to them.
2. List the employee details if and only if more than 10 employees are present in department no 10.
3. List the name of the employees with their immediate higher authority.
4. List all the employees who do not manage any one.
5. List the employee details whose salary is greater than the lowest salary of an employee belonging to
deptno 20.
6. List the details of the employee earning more than the highest paid manager.
7. List the highest salary paid for each job.
8. Find the most recently hired employee in each department.
9. In which year did most people join the company? Display the year and the number of employees.
10. Which department has the highest annual remuneration bill?
11. Write a query to display a ‘*’ against the row of the most recently hired employee.
12. Write a correlated sub-query to list out the employees who earn more than the average salary of
their department.
13. Find the nth maximum salary.
14. Select the duplicate records (Records, which are inserted, that already exist) in the EMP table.
15. Write a query to list the length of service of the employees (of the form n years and m months).
Computer Networks
1. What are the two types of transmission technology available?
(i) Broadcast and (ii) point-to-point
2. What is subnet?
A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.
3. Difference between the communication and transmission.
Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity,
synchronisation, clock etc.
Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication
4. What are the possible ways of data exchange?
(i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex.
5. What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of
network protocol stack.
6. What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks?
The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3.
The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard
protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations
are often called "triple X"
7. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes?
Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.
8. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes?
Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.
9. What is Beaconing?
The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network
notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in
Token ring and FDDI networks.
10. What is redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network
requests. This comes under presentation layer.
11. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a
remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM
for the use on small subnets.
12. What is RAID?
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.
13. What is passive topology?
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as
passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology - linear bus.
14. What is Brouter?
Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers.
15. What is cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.
16. What is point-to-point protocol
A communications protocol used to connect computers to remote networking services including
Internet service providers.
17. How Gateway is different from Routers?
A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two
completely different network architectures or data formats
18. What is attenuation?
The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.
19. What is MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network
architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.
20. Difference between bit rate and baud rate.
Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the
number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits.
baud rate = bit rate / N
where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.
21. What is Bandwidth?
Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This
limited range is called the bandwidth.
22. What are the types of Transmission media?
Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to
two categories.
a) Guided Media:
These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twistedpair,
coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is
contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept
and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts
and transports signals in the form of light.
b) Unguided Media:
This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical
conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite
communication and cellular telephony.
23. What is Project 802?
It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment
from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link
layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN
It consists of the following:
 802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.
 802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecturespecific,
that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.
 Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct
modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules
are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).
 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.
24. What is Protocol Data Unit?
The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four
fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and
an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the
receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether
the PDU frame is a information frame (I - frame) or a supervisory frame (S - frame) or a unnumbered
frame (U - frame).
25. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices?
Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer.
It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts
the refreshed copy back in to the link.
These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They
divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for
each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing
the intended recipent and control congestion.
They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type).
They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to
determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.
They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a
WAN). They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another
protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model.
26. What is ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by
hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test /
reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error
27. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite?
The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data
unit created is called either a segment or an user datagram, at the network layer the data unit created is
called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally
transmitted as signals along the transmission media.
28. What is difference between ARP and RARP?
The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit
physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by
sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver.
The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address
when it knows only its physical address.
29. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram?
The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60
30. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses?
Class A -
Class B -
Class C -
Class D -
Class E -
31. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols?
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but
does not provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file
from one host to another. It uses the services offer by TCP and so is reliable and secure. It establishes
two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control
32. What are major types of networks and explain?
 Server-based network
 Peer-to-peer network
Peer-to-peer network, computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using
the resources.
Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server
computers to provide security and network administration
33. What are the important topologies for networks?
 BUS topology:
In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line.
Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend.
 STAR topology:
In this all computers are connected using a central hub.
Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical
 RING topology:
In this all computers are connected in loop.
All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal
does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it.
34. What is mesh network?
A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths
for data to travel.
35. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission?
In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In
broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent
36. Explain 5-4-3 rule?
In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network ,there can be no more than five
network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.
37. What MAU?
In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU).
38. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols?
Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable
protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router
39. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model?
It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design.
40. What is logical link control?
One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802
standard. This sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending
data across the physical network connection.
41. What is virtual channel?
Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast
connections are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit.
42. What is virtual path?
Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits
can be grouped together into what is called path.
43. What is packet filter?
Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality
allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded
normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.
44. What is traffic shaping?
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to
transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage
congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.
45. What is multicast routing?
Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast
46. What is region?
When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we will call regions, with each
router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but
knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.
47. What is silly window syndrome?
It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the
sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a
48. What are Digrams and Trigrams?
The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The
most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion.
49. Expand IDEA.
IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm.
50. What is wide-mouth frog?
Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.
51. What is Mail Gateway?
It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery
52. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.
53. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)?
It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of
networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system.
54. What is autonomous system?
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a
common Interior Gateway Protocol.
55. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?
It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous
system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP
(Exterior Gateway Protocol).
56. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?
It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.
57. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start
of a Telnet session.
58. What is a Multi-homed Host?
It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is
called as a Multi-homed Host.
59. What is Kerberos?
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos
uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.
60. What is OSPF?
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses
knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.
61. What is Proxy ARP?
It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes
that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.
62. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)?
It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
63. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)?
It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
64. What is source route?
It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route
may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.
Operating Systems
Following are a few basic questions that cover the essentials of OS:
1. Explain the concept of Reentrancy.
It is a useful, memory-saving technique for multiprogrammed timesharing systems. A Reentrant
Procedure is one in which multiple users can share a single copy of a program during the same period.
Reentrancy has 2 key aspects: The program code cannot modify itself, and the local data for each user
process must be stored separately. Thus, the permanent part is the code, and the temporary part is the
pointer back to the calling program and local variables used by that program. Each execution instance is
called activation. It executes the code in the permanent part, but has its own copy of local
variables/parameters. The temporary part associated with each activation is the activation record.
Generally, the activation record is kept on the stack.
Note: A reentrant procedure can be interrupted and called by an interrupting program, and still
execute correctly on returning to the procedure.
2. Explain Belady's Anomaly.
Also called FIFO anomaly. Usually, on increasing the number of frames allocated to a process'
virtual memory, the process execution is faster, because fewer page faults occur. Sometimes, the reverse
happens, i.e., the execution time increases even when more frames are allocated to the process. This is
Belady's Anomaly. This is true for certain page reference patterns.
3. What is a binary semaphore? What is its use?
A binary semaphore is one, which takes only 0 and 1 as values. They are used to implement
mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes.
4. What is thrashing?
It is a phenomenon in virtual memory schemes when the processor spends most of its time
swapping pages, rather than executing instructions. This is due to an inordinate number of page faults.
5. List the Coffman's conditions that lead to a deadlock.
 Mutual Exclusion: Only one process may use a critical resource at a time.
 Hold & Wait: A process may be allocated some resources while waiting for others.
 No Pre-emption: No resource can be forcible removed from a process holding it.
 Circular Wait: A closed chain of processes exist such that each process holds at least one resource
needed by another process in the chain.
6. What are short-, long- and medium-term scheduling?
Long term scheduler determines which programs are admitted to the system for processing. It
controls the degree of multiprogramming. Once admitted, a job becomes a process.
Medium term scheduling is part of the swapping function. This relates to processes that are in a
blocked or suspended state. They are swapped out of real-memory until they are ready to execute. The
swapping-in decision is based on memory-management criteria.
Short term scheduler, also know as a dispatcher executes most frequently, and makes the finestgrained
decision of which process should execute next. This scheduler is invoked whenever an event
occurs. It may lead to interruption of one process by preemption.
7. What are turnaround time and response time?
Turnaround time is the interval between the submission of a job and its completion. Response
time is the interval between submission of a request, and the first response to that request.
8. What are the typical elements of a process image?
Operating Systems
 User data: Modifiable part of user space. May include program data, user stack area, and programs
that may be modified.
 User program: The instructions to be executed.
 System Stack: Each process has one or more LIFO stacks associated with it. Used to store parameters
and calling addresses for procedure and system calls.
 Process control Block (PCB): Info needed by the OS to control processes.
9. What is the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)?
In a cached system, the base addresses of the last few referenced pages is maintained in
registers called the TLB that aids in faster lookup. TLB contains those page-table entries that have been
most recently used. Normally, each virtual memory reference causes 2 physical memory accesses-- one to
fetch appropriate page-table entry, and one to fetch the desired data. Using TLB in-between, this is
reduced to just one physical memory access in cases of TLB-hit.
10. What is the resident set and working set of a process?
Resident set is that portion of the process image that is actually in real-memory at a particular
instant. Working set is that subset of resident set that is actually needed for execution. (Relate this to the
variable-window size method for swapping techniques.)
11. When is a system in safe state?
The set of dispatchable processes is in a safe state if there exists at least one temporal order in
which all processes can be run to completion without resulting in a deadlock.
12. What is cycle stealing?
We encounter cycle stealing in the context of Direct Memory Access (DMA). Either the DMA
controller can use the data bus when the CPU does not need it, or it may force the CPU to temporarily
suspend operation. The latter technique is called cycle stealing. Note that cycle stealing can be done only
at specific break points in an instruction cycle.
13. What is meant by arm-stickiness?
If one or a few processes have a high access rate to data on one track of a storage disk, then
they may monopolize the device by repeated requests to that track. This generally happens with most
common device scheduling algorithms (LIFO, SSTF, C-SCAN, etc). High-density multisurface disks are
more likely to be affected by this than low density ones.
14. What are the stipulations of C2 level security?
C2 level security provides for:
 Discretionary Access Control
 Identification and Authentication
 Auditing
 Resource reuse
15. What is busy waiting?
The repeated execution of a loop of code while waiting for an event to occur is called busywaiting.
The CPU is not engaged in any real productive activity during this period, and the process does
not progress toward completion.
16. Explain the popular multiprocessor thread-scheduling strategies.
 Load Sharing: Processes are not assigned to a particular processor. A global queue of threads is
maintained. Each processor, when idle, selects a thread from this queue. Note that load balancing
refers to a scheme where work is allocated to processors on a more permanent basis.
 Gang Scheduling: A set of related threads is scheduled to run on a set of processors at the same
time, on a 1-to-1 basis. Closely related threads / processes may be scheduled this way to reduce
synchronization blocking, and minimize process switching. Group scheduling predated this strategy.
 Dedicated processor assignment: Provides implicit scheduling defined by assignment of threads to
processors. For the duration of program execution, each program is allocated a set of processors
equal in number to the number of threads in the program. Processors are chosen from the available
 Dynamic scheduling: The number of thread in a program can be altered during the course of
17. When does the condition 'rendezvous' arise?
In message passing, it is the condition in which, both, the sender and receiver are blocked until
the message is delivered.
18. What is a trap and trapdoor?
Trapdoor is a secret undocumented entry point into a program used to grant access without
normal methods of access authentication. A trap is a software interrupt, usually the result of an error
19. What are local and global page replacements?
Local replacement means that an incoming page is brought in only to the relevant process'
address space. Global replacement policy allows any page frame from any process to be replaced. The
latter is applicable to variable partitions model only.
20. Define latency, transfer and seek time with respect to disk I/O.
Seek time is the time required to move the disk arm to the required track. Rotational delay or
latency is the time it takes for the beginning of the required sector to reach the head. Sum of seek time (if
any) and latency is the access time. Time taken to actually transfer a span of data is transfer time.
21. Describe the Buddy system of memory allocation.
Free memory is maintained in linked lists, each of equal sized blocks. Any such block is of size
2^k. When some memory is required by a process, the block size of next higher order is chosen, and
broken into two. Note that the two such pieces differ in address only in their kth bit. Such pieces are
called buddies. When any used block is freed, the OS checks to see if its buddy is also free. If so, it is
rejoined, and put into the original free-block linked-list.
22. What is time-stamping?
It is a technique proposed by Lamport, used to order events in a distributed system without the
use of clocks. This scheme is intended to order events consisting of the transmission of messages. Each
system 'i' in the network maintains a counter Ci. Every time a system transmits a message, it increments
its counter by 1 and attaches the time-stamp Ti to the message. When a message is received, the
receiving system 'j' sets its counter Cj to 1 more than the maximum of its current value and the incoming
time-stamp Ti. At each site, the ordering of messages is determined by the following rules: For messages
x from site i and y from site j, x precedes y if one of the following conditions holds....(a) if Ti<Tj or (b) if
Ti=Tj and i<j.
23. How are the wait/signal operations for monitor different from those for semaphores?
If a process in a monitor signal and no task is waiting on the condition variable, the signal is lost.
So this allows easier program design. Whereas in semaphores, every operation affects the value of the
semaphore, so the wait and signal operations should be perfectly balanced in the program.
24. In the context of memory management, what are placement and replacement algorithms?
Placement algorithms determine where in available real-memory to load a program. Common
methods are first-fit, next-fit, best-fit. Replacement algorithms are used when memory is full, and one
process (or part of a process) needs to be swapped out to accommodate a new program. The replacement
algorithm determines which are the partitions to be swapped out.
25. In loading programs into memory, what is the difference between load-time dynamic linking and runtime
dynamic linking?
For load-time dynamic linking: Load module to be loaded is read into memory. Any reference to a
target external module causes that module to be loaded and the references are updated to a relative
address from the start base address of the application module.
With run-time dynamic loading: Some of the linking is postponed until actual reference during
execution. Then the correct module is loaded and linked.
26. What are demand- and pre-paging?
With demand paging, a page is brought into memory only when a location on that page is
actually referenced during execution. With pre-paging, pages other than the one demanded by a page
fault are brought in. The selection of such pages is done based on common access patterns, especially for
secondary memory devices.
27. Paging a memory management function, while multiprogramming a processor management function,
are the two interdependent?
28. What is page cannibalizing?
Page swapping or page replacements are called page cannibalizing.
29. What has triggered the need for multitasking in PCs?
 Increased speed and memory capacity of microprocessors together with the support fir virtual
memory and
 Growth of client server computing
30. What are the four layers that Windows NT have in order to achieve independence?
 Hardware abstraction layer
 Kernel
 Subsystems
 System Services.
31. What is SMP?
To achieve maximum efficiency and reliability a mode of operation known as symmetric
multiprocessing is used. In essence, with SMP any process or threads can be assigned to any processor.
32. What are the key object oriented concepts used by Windows NT?
 Encapsulation
 Object class and instance
33. Is Windows NT a full blown object oriented operating system? Give reasons.
No Windows NT is not so, because its not implemented in object oriented language and the data
structures reside within one executive component and are not represented as objects and it does not
support object oriented capabilities .
34. What is a drawback of MVT?
It does not have the features like
 ability to support multiple processors
 virtual storage
 source level debugging
35. What is process spawning?
When the OS at the explicit request of another process creates a process, this action is called
process spawning.
36. How many jobs can be run concurrently on MVT?
15 jobs
37. List out some reasons for process termination.
 Normal completion
 Time limit exceeded
 Memory unavailable
 Bounds violation
 Protection error
 Arithmetic error
 Time overrun
 I/O failure
 Invalid instruction
 Privileged instruction
 Data misuse
 Operator or OS intervention
 Parent termination.
38. What are the reasons for process suspension?
 swapping
 interactive user request
 timing
 parent process request
39. What is process migration?
It is the transfer of sufficient amount of the state of process from one machine to the target
40. What is mutant?
In Windows NT a mutant provides kernel mode or user mode mutual exclusion with the notion of
41. What is an idle thread?
The special thread a dispatcher will execute when no ready thread is found.
42. What is FtDisk?
It is a fault tolerance disk driver for Windows NT.
43. What are the possible threads a thread can have?
 Ready
 Standby
 Running
 Waiting
 Transition
 Terminated.
44. What are rings in Windows NT?
Windows NT uses protection mechanism called rings provides by the process to implement
separation between the user mode and kernel mode.
45. What is Executive in Windows NT?
In Windows NT, executive refers to the operating system code that runs in kernel mode.
46. What are the sub-components of I/O manager in Windows NT?
 Network redirector/ Server
 Cache manager.
 File systems
 Network driver
 Device driver
47. What are DDks? Name an operating system that includes this feature.
DDks are device driver kits, which are equivalent to SDKs for writing device drivers. Windows NT
includes DDks.
48. What level of security does Windows NT meets?
C2 level security.
Common interview questions
1. Tell me about yourself
The most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared in
your mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work-related items unless instructed
otherwise. Talk about things you have done and jobs you have held that relate to the position you are
interviewing for. Start with the item farthest back and work up to the present.
2. Why did you leave your last job?
Stay positive regardless of the circumstances. Never refer to a major problem with management
and never speak ill of supervisors, co-workers or the organization. I f you do, you will be the one looking
bad. Keep smiling and talk about leaving for a positive reason such as an opportunity, a chance to do
something special or other forward-looking reasons.
3. What experience do you have in this field?
Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have specific
experience, get as close as you can.
4. Do you consider yourself successful?
You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have set
goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.
5. What do co-workers say about you?
Be prepared with a quote or two from co-workers. Either a specific statement or a paraphrase will
work. Jill Clark, a co-worker at Smith Company, always said I was the hardest workers she had ever
known. It is as powerful as Jill having said it at the interview herself.
6. What do you know about this organization?
This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find
out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and who are the major
7. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?
Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety of activities can be
mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good ones handy to mention.
8. Are you applying for other jobs?
Be honest but do not spend a lot of time in this area. Keep the focus on this job and what you
can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.
9. Why do you want to work for this organization?
This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on the research you have done on
the organization. Sincerity is extremely important here and will easily be used. Relate it to your long-term
career goals.
Common Interview
10. Do you know anyone who works for us?
Be aware of the policy on relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer even
though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a friend only if they are well thought
11. What kind of salary do you need?
A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will probably lose if you answer first. So, do not
answer it. Instead, say something like, that's a tough question. Can you tell me the range for this
position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on
the details of the job. Then give a wide range.
12. Are you a team player?
You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you often
perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself is good evidence of your team attitude. Do not
brag; just say it in a matter-of-fact tone? This is a key point.
13. How long would you expect to work for us if hired?
Specifics here are not good. Something like this should work: I'd like it to be a long time. Or As
long as we both feel I'm doing a good job.
14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that?
This is serious. Do not make light of it or in any way seem like you like to fire people. At the
same time, you will do it when it is the right thing to do. When it comes to the organization versus the
individual who has created a harmful situation, you will protect the organization. Remember firing is not
the same as layoff or reduction in force.
15. What is your philosophy towards work?
The interviewer is not looking for a long or flowery dissertation here. Do you have strong feelings
that the job gets done? Yes. That's the type of answer were that works best here. Short and positive,
showing a benefit to the organization.
16. If you had enough money to retire right now, would you?
Answer yes if you would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do not
say yes if you do not mean it.
17. Have you ever been asked to leave a position?
If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things about the
people or organization involved.
18. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization?
You should be anxious for this question. It gives you a chance to highlight your best points as
they relate to the position being discussed. Give a little advance thought to this relationship.
19. Why should we hire you?
Point out how your assets meet what the organization needs. Do not mention any other
candidates to make a comparison.
20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made?
Have a good one ready. Be sure and use a suggestion that was accepted and was then
considered successful. One related to the type of work applied for is a real plus.
21. What irritates you about co-workers?
This is a trap question. Think real hard but fail to come up with anything that irritates you. A
short statement that you seem to get along with folks is great.
22. What is your greatest strength?
Numerous answers are good, just stay positive. A few good examples: Your ability to prioritize,
Your problem-solving skills, Your ability to work under pressure, Your ability to focus on projects, Your
professional expertise, Your leadership skills, Your positive attitude
23. Tell me about your dream job.
Stay away from a specific job. You cannot win. If you say the job you are contending for is it, you
strain credibility. If you say another job is it, you plant the suspicion that you will be dissatisfied with this
position if hired. The best is to stay genetic and say something like: A job where I love the work, like the
people, can contribute and can't wait to get to work.
24. Why do you think you would do well at this job?
Give several reasons and include skills, experience and interest.
25. What are you looking for in a job?
See answer # 23
26. What kind of person would you refuse to work with?
Do not be trivial. It would take disloyalty to the organization, violence or lawbreaking to get you
to object. Minor objections will label you as a whiner.
27. What is more important to you: the money or the work?
Money is always important, but the work is the most important. There is no better answer.
28. What would your previous supervisor say your strongest point is?
There are numerous good possibilities: Loyalty, Energy, Positive attitude, Leadership, Team
player, Expertise, Initiative, Patience, Hard work, Creativity, Problem solver
29. Tell me about a problem you had with a supervisor?
Biggest trap of all. This is a test to see if you will speak ill of your boss. If you fall for it and tell
about a problem with a former boss, you may well below the interview right there. Stay positive and
develop a poor memory about any trouble with a supervisor.
30. What has disappointed you about a job?
Don't get trivial or negative. Safe areas are few but can include: Not enough of a challenge. You
were laid off in a reduction Company did not win a contract, which would have given you more
31. Tell me about your ability to work under pressure?
You may say that you thrive under certain types of pressure. Give an example that relates to the
type of position applied for.
32. Do your skills match this job or another job more closely?
Probably this one. Do not give fuel to the suspicion that you may want another job more than
this one.
33. What motivates you to do your best on the job?
This is a personal trait that only you can say, but good examples are: Challenge, Achievement
and Recognition.
34. Are you willing to work overtime? Nights? Weekends?
This is up to you. Be totally honest.
35. How would you know you were successful on this job?
Several ways are good measures: You set high standards for yourself and meet them. Your
outcomes are a success. Your boss tells you that you are successful.
36. Would you be willing to relocate if required?
You should be clear on this with your family prior to the interview if you think there is a chance it
may come up. Do not say yes just to get the job if the real answer is no. This can create a lot of problems
later on in your career. Be honest at this point and save yourself future grief.
37. Are you willing to put the interests of the organization ahead of your own?
This is a straight loyalty and dedication question. Do not worry about the deep ethical and
philosophical implications. Just say yes.
38. Describe your management style.
Try to avoid labels. Some of the more common labels, like progressive, salesman or consensus,
can have several meanings or descriptions depending on which management expert you listen to. The
situational style is safe, because it says you will manage according to the situation, instead of one size fits
39. What have you learned from mistakes on the job?
Here you have to come up with something or you strain credibility. Make it small, wellintentioned
mistake with a positive lesson learned. An example would be working too far ahead of
colleagues on a project and thus throwing coordination off.
40. Do you have any blind spots?
Trick question. If you know about blind spots, they are no longer blind spots. Do not reveal any
personal areas of concern here. Let them do their own discovery on your bad points. Do not hand it to
41. If you were hiring a person for this job, what would you look for?
Be careful to mention traits that are needed and that you have.
42. Do you think you are overqualified for this position?
Regardless of your qualifications, state that you are very well qualified for the position.
43. How do you propose to compensate for your lack of experience?
First, if you have experience that the interviewer does not know about, bring that up: Then, point
out (if true) that you are a hard working quick learner.
44. What qualities do you look for in a boss?
Be generic and positive. Safe qualities are knowledgeable, a sense of humor, fair, loyal to
subordinates and holder of high standards. All bosses think they have these traits.
45. Tell me about a time when you helped resolve a dispute between others?
Pick a specific incident. Concentrate on your problem solving technique and not the dispute you
46. What position do you prefer on a team working on a project?
Be honest. If you are comfortable in different roles, point that out.
47. Describe your work ethic.
Emphasize benefits to the organization. Things like, determination to get the job done and work
hard but enjoy your work are good.
48. What has been your biggest professional disappointment?
Be sure that you refer to something that was beyond your control. Show acceptance and no
negative feelings.
49. Tell me about the most fun you have had on the job.
Talk about having fun by accomplishing something for the organization.
50. Do you have any questions for me?
Always have some questions prepared. Questions prepared where you will be an asset to the
organization are good. How soon will I be able to be productive? And what type of projects will I be able to
assist on? are examples.
Job Interviewing Do's and Don'ts
Here are the keys to successful job interviewing. Follow these simple rules and you should
achieve success in this important phase of job-hunting.
· Do take a practice run to the location where you are having the interview -- or be sure you know
exactly where it is and how long it takes to get there.
· Do your research and know the type of job interview you will be encountering. (See types of job
interviews.) And do prepare and practice for the interview, but don't memorize or over-rehearse
your answers. (See our some of the best collections of interview questions.)
· Do dress the part for the job, the company and the industry. And do err on the side of
conservatism. If you're not sure, you should consider reading our article, when Job-Hunting:
Dress for Success.
· Do plan to arrive about 10 minutes early. Late arrival for a job interview is never excusable. If
you are running late, do phone the company.
· Do greet the receptionist or assistant with courtesy and respect. This is where you make your
first impression.
· Don't chew gum during the interview.
· If presented with a job application, do fill it out neatly, completely, and accurately.
· Do bring extra resumes to the interview. (Even better, if you have a job skills portfolio, do bring
that with you to the interview.)
· Don't rely on your application or resume to do the selling for you. No matter how qualified you
are for the position, you will need to sell yourself to the interviewer.
· Do greet the interviewer(s) by title (Ms., Mr., and Dr.) and last name if you are sure of the
pronunciation. (If you're not sure, do ask the receptionist about the pronunciation before going
into the interview.
· Do shake hands firmly. Don't have a limp or clammy handshake!
· Do wait until you are offered a chair before sitting. And do remember body language and
posture: sit upright and look alert and interested at all times. Don't fidget or slouch.
· Don't tell jokes during the interview.
· Do make good eye contact with your interviewer(s).
Job Interviews
Do’s and Don’ts
· Do show enthusiasm in the position and the company.
· Don't smoke, even if the interviewer does and offers you a cigarette. And don't smoke
beforehand so that you smell like smoke. And do brush your teeth, use mouthwash, or have a
breath mint before the interview.
· Do avoid using poor language, slang, and pause words (such as "like," "uh” and "um").
· Don't be soft-spoken. A forceful voice projects confidence.
· Do have a high confidence and energy level, but don't be overly aggressive.
· Don't act as though you would take any job or are desperate for employment.
· Do avoid controversial topics.
· Don't say anything negative about former colleagues, supervisors, or employers.
· Do make sure that your good points come across to the interviewer in a factual, sincere manner.
· Don't ever lie. Answer questions truthfully, frankly and succinctly. And don't over-answer
· Do stress your achievements. And don't offer any negative information about yourself.
· Don't answer questions with a simple "yes" or "no." Explain whenever possible. Describe those
things about yourself that showcase your talents, skills, and determination. Give examples.
· Do show off the research you have done on the company and industry when responding to
questions. (See our Guide to Researching Companies.)
· Don't bring up or discuss personal issues or family problems.
· Do remember that the interview is also an important time for you to evaluate the interviewer and
the company she represents.
· Don't respond to an unexpected question with an extended pause or by saying something like,
"boy, that's a good question." And do repeat the question out loud or ask for the question to be
repeated to give you a little more time to think about an answer. Also, a short pause before
responding is okay.
· Do always conduct yourself as if you are determined to get the job you are discussing. Never
close the door on an opportunity until you are sure about it.
· Don't answer cell phone calls during the interview, and do turn off (or set to silent ring) your cell
phone and/or pager.
· Do show what you can do for the company rather than what the company can do for you.
· Don't inquire about salary, vacations, bonuses, retirement, or other benefits until after you've
received an offer. Be prepared for a question about your salary requirements, but do try and
delay salary talk until you have an offer. (You might consider visiting our salary tutorial for more
tips and strategies.)
· Do ask intelligent questions about the job, company, or industry. Don't ever not ask any
questions -- it shows a lack of interest.
· Do close the interview by telling the interviewer(s) that you want the job and asking about the
next step in the process. (Some experts even say you should close the interview by asking for
the job.)
· Do try and get business cards from each person you interviewed with -- or at least the correct
spelling of their first and last names. And don't make assumptions about simple names -- was it
Jon or John -- get the spelling.
· Do immediately take down notes after the interview concludes so you don't forget crucial details.
Motivating words
Tell yourself you are a great individual and believe in your self, for if you don't believe in your
self, no one else will believe in you. Create your own life and then go out and live it.
The law of averages tells us you must achieve more, if you are trying more. More, more and
more. The more self-confidence you have the less you will be affected by temporary setbacks (never final,
always temporary) and short-term disappointments. The more self-confidence you have the likely it is that
you will live a life full of achievement, riches, satisfaction and pure bliss.
MY FRIEND, YOU ARE EXTRAORDINARY!! The odds are greater than 50 crore to 1 against their
ever being anyone with the unique combination of talents, skills, and abilities that you possess. You
are unique, never forget my friend. The unbelievable achievements that you are capable of, no one
knows, not even your self.
Exploit your strengths and starve your weaknesses. Yes, of course there is more to it than this
but not much more. "WE ARE WHAT WE THINK ABOUT!" YOU MUST! You must make up your mind to look
at you honestly and make future decisions based on your uniqueness. NOW! TODAY! THIS VERY MOMENT
is time to realize how extraordinary you are.
Albert Einstein used his brain.
Napoleon used his power.
Thomas Edison used his brain.
Thatz why they reached that position. Use your brain my friend. You can reach a unbelievable
position. You can.
The psychologist Abraham Maslow says the story of the human race is the story of men and
women selling themselves short. The great majority of people tend to compare themselves unfavorably
with others. They dwell on there own weaknesses and limitations and they usually end up with far less
then they are really capable of. Instead of taking control of their life and enjoying high levels of selfesteem,
self-respect and personal pride, the average person just gets by from day to day. GOD put you
here on this glorious earth to do more than "just get by." If self-confidence and the self-esteem that goes
Motivating Words
with it is so desirable, why is it so few people have enough self-confidence to live the lives that are
possible for them?
From time to time, (rarely) we have seen people with naturally high levels of self-confidence.
These people have gone on to achieve extraordinary things. In studying the lives of these super-achievers
we have found that "some" of them started out with high levels of self-confidence, which they learned
from there parents, quite fortunately, in early childhood. But, most of them started out like most of us
with down deep feelings of inferiority and inadequacy. Because of criticism and lack of love and other
mistakes parents made in early childhood, we grow up with little self-esteem and feel less than others.
The starting point in developing a high level of self-confidence and in reality becoming an
EXCELLENT human being is to think through and to decide upon your valves. For example, what is really,
really important to you? How do you define values? Having defined a clear set of values, not vague, not
unsure, but clear, concise, values will cause you to develop the convictions and enthusiasm necessary for
self-confidence. Your starting point toward higher self-confidence and personal greatness is to clarify your
values for yourself. Ask yourself what you truly believe in! (?) What do you stand for? What will you not
stand for? What would you pay for? Work for? or even DIE FOR????
Make your own list and remember, unshakeable self-confidence comes from unshakeable
commitment to your values. When deep down inside yourself you know you will never violate your highest
principles you experience a deep sense of "personal power" and confidence that empowers you to deal
with life openly and honestly and with complete self-confidence in almost every human situation.
Did you know that Edison failed over 9000 (that's thousand) times before perfecting the light
bulb! How many of us would have thrown in the "proverbial" towel at 20 failures, 150 failures or at the
8000th failure. After Edison had invented and produced the light-bulb a reporter asked him how it felt to
fail over 9000 times. Edison replied, "I was glad I found 9000 ways not to invent the light bulb! From this
point forward Edison went on to receive 1,093 patents, more than any other person in U.S. history.
Read as many books, and magazines that are positive inspirational and motivational as you
possibly can. Study the lives of the people who have a positive message to share with all of us, and
especially in the given field you have chosen to be great at.
Nothing in life that is worthy is ever too hard to achieve, if you have the courage to try it and you
have the faith to believe. Faith is a force that is greater than knowledge or power or skill.
"The secret of success in life is for u to be ready for your opportunity when it comes."
"Success comes in cans, not cannot."
"There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, learning from failure."
"Self-trust is the first secret of success."
"Success is going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm."
"We can succeed at almost anything for which we have unlimited enthusiasm."
Dear friend, you should get Strength to battle with difficulties and overcome them. You should
get Patience enough to toil until some good is accomplished. You should hope enough to remove all
anxious fears concerning the future.
Emotional decisions come from the heart, thinking ones from the brain. You should not take any
emotional decisions. This is the age we all take only emotional decisions. Ask your brain always, it will tell
you, what is correct and wrong.
To have a positive day keep the following in mind:
1. Every problem has a solution.
2. Failures always lead to learning something you can use later.
3. Many times you must take a step back before u take two steps forward.
4. After a crisis is always an opportunity.
5. You control your thoughts and feelings.
6. You make the choices that determine your fate.
Michael Jordan wordings. (He is famous US basket ball player.)
1. I have missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I have
been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I have failed over and over and over again in my
life. And that is why I succeed.
2. I can accept failure, but I can't accept not trying.
3. I have always believed that if you put in the work, the results will come. I don't do things halfheartedly.
Because I know if I do, then I can expect half-hearted results.
4. If you are trying to achieve, there will be roadblocks. I have had them; everybody has had them.
5. Obstacles don't have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don't turn around and give up. Figure out how
to climb it, go through it, or work around it.
2. At any cost don’t let your hope down, God is there to support you
Always keep in mind that ‘what do you want right now?' 'What is lacking behind YOU to get
that?' 'What has to be done to get as early as possible?'
To overcome all the above mentioned questions, always there is only one thing with you...That is
'Continuous hard work without loosing rays of hope'....You should not lose your hope even you didn't get
job after a month or two months or even a year(Just for sake I am telling this)...But no one will do
that...You should not stop initiation (whatever you have to do to get job) or approach towards getting job
from your side ...You just have to keep on trying to achieve whatever you want?...I am sure you will do
that because you are in that situation and also I can support you to the extend I can...See if you think you
can always you can...Isn't it?...
Don't loose your hope and always have positive attitude in your mind...Think always about
getting job and do something related to that (which can add value to get a job. we will also help you what
you need to do. Nothing should be there in your mind apart from getting job.
Experience of a job hunter now working in TCS…..
For example,
If you walking along the road suppose you are seeing an advertisement during that time even
that is not related to yours but you should be able to notice or something has to be triggered on your
mind regarding your job...Because opportunities can come in any way, you should aware and should not
miss that one...It won't come again...To really understand this I can tell you N number of examples even
from my friends circle and from my own experience also...You don't attend courses by paying 30 to 50
thousand.....This is I am telling you from my own experience...Because even I didn't know how to type in
computer keyboard also I didn't attend for any courses when I got selected into TCS...You don't have to
worry about technical knowledge for a fresher....The company which hires you will give you lots of training
in software. Just you have to prepare to clear the written test and interview to get into the company.
Useful websites
Company question paper sites
Technical document sites
http://www.codeguru.com(c, c++, vc++ AND .NET)
http://www.onesmartclick.com/programming/programming.html (All)
http://www.vyomworld.com (All)
http://www.acetheinterview.com/qanda/ (All)
http://www.techinterviews.com/ (All)
http://www.fredosaurus.com/notes-cpp/index.html (C++)
http://www.parashift.com/c++-faq-lite/ (C++)
http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/ (All)
http://williamstallings.com/Extras/OS-Notes/notes.html (OS)
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~solomon/cs537/notes.html (OS)
http://www.winprog.org/tutorial/ (Windows)
http://ciips.ee.uwa.edu.au/~morris/Year2/PLDS210/ds_ToC.html (Data Structure)
http://hebb.cis.uoguelph.ca/~dave/343/Lectures/testing.html (Testing)
http://pweb.netcom.com/~tjensen/ptr/pointers.htm (Pointers)
http://www.intelinfo.com/Critchie (very good site)
http://www.cs.umd.edu/~mount/420/ (Java)
http://www.nist.gov/dads/ (All)
http://www.intelinfo.com/free_java_training.html (Java)
http://www.math.umd.edu/~lify/hotlink.html (All)
http://www.holub.com/goodies/rules.html (All)
http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~hall/java/ (Java, good one)
Useful Websites
http://www.ibiblio.org/winsock/winsock-1.1/winsock.html (Win socket)
http://www.hk8.org/old%5Fweb/ (good one)
http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/C/CE.html(C and UNIX)
http://devcentral.iticentral.com/ (All)
http://www.informit.com/ (All)
http://www.thefreecountry.com/ (All, Very good one)
http://www.tcfb.com/freetechbooks/ (All)
http://www.ibiblio.org/javafaq/javafaq.html (Java)
http://www.afu.com/javafaq.html (Java)
http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~hall/java/FAQs-and-Tutorials.html (Java)
http://www.comeaucomputing.com/techtalk/(C and C++)
http://www.memorymanagement.org (excellent)
Puzzle sites
Company test patterns
How to prepare for Infosys?
There is nothing to worry about the Infosys written test. It is easy if you keep your mind cool.
There will be 10 questions in aptitude test, each of different marks & without multiple choices. Duration is
1 hr & you have to get at least 7-8 correct to get short-listed. You had to put down the procedure also in
the paper. These puzzles are similar to the one in Shakuntala & George Summers. Attempt all questions,
as there is no negative marking. No problem if we guess also. Mostly there will be questions on time &
distance, probability, puzzles (George Summers), watch questions (related to time), escalator problem,
completion of series & profit-loss questions.
Verbal is very easy. There will be 45 multiple-choice questions to be answered in 30 min. Attempt
all questions. Mostly there will be completion of sentences (20 Q), correction of sentences (10Q) reading
comprehension (5Q), synonyms & antonyms (10Q).
Short listing is mainly based on aptitude not on verbal. Concentrate more on aptitude. We can
do very silly mistakes there. So be cool.
Regarding interview, firstly it's not a technical interview. It is purely HR. It will be around 20-30
min. They will even ask 2-3 puzzles. They are easy. If we don't answer any of them also there is no
problem. You should be confident whether it is right or wrong. If you are through the written test then you
will be almost through the interview. They almost select everyone in the interview. So concentrate more
on the written test.
How to prepare for TCS?
There were 3 main sections verbal, aptitude and reasoning. Generally any company will not
change the question paper for a year. So, you people can give importance to 2004 Question Papers. You
can collect the sample QP from the about websites. We can see QP from 1995 onwards. Preparing all
those papers is enough to get placement. There will be section cut off. Aptitude any one can clear. But In
verbal section only we can beat others.
Don’t miss to prepare all the verbal section from 1995 onwards. The choices given to synonym
and antonym part will be changed. But the question may be the same one. So, Open "MS WORD" and
collect synonym and antonyms for all the words found in all the QP.
Regarding interview:
They check only the confidential level of the candidate. They never expect you to answer for each
and every question. All they need to check is how bold you are, how much confidence you have on you.
Always don’t expect questions from Areas of Interest. Always have a pleasant smile in your face and keep
yourself very cool. That is more important than anything. They may sometime ask very basic questions
like what is the version of WINDOWS you have worked on? But answers for them are very much
important. For non-computer students the interview will be very simple. They need not worry that they
don’t know much technically.
Then HR interview, you should be very careful here. They may ask very tricky questions. Think
twice before answering to these questions. The general questions in HR interview will be, why do you want
to join TCS? What do you want to become after 3 years? Why TCS should take you in?
General faqs
1. How is the IT field?
""Market is good or bad, we should get a good job"", we are in need of a good job which should
be pertinent to our qualification. Always fresher should keep this mentality. Market is really very good. We
need not worry about market status. Keep on trying till you get a good job. Do fight with your job
hunting. Surely you will win.
2. Do we need to study any mainframe/ testing/ .NET, etc?
For fresher, absolutely no need for computer courses. More practice in Quantitative analysis , C ,
C++ is more than sufficient to clear the software test papers also the recruiters do not expect professional
experience from the fresh graduates. A good guidance is hundred times better than a computer course.
If you are graduated before 2004 and if you feel that you don’t have sufficient knowledge in any
of the software languages, try to join some computer courses like testing/ mainframe/ .NET, meanwhile u
can try similar projects at your lab or home so that you can include it as a work experience even though
you are not employed anywhere. This is a tip given by the expertise because in many of the interviews,
the candidate will not be asked about the work experience rather he will be asked technically.
3. Some of the easy ways to get call from the mnc’s
There are some Yahoo Groups which provide fresher job vacancies and also about the latest
trends and scope for the fresher in IT Field. Here are some of the groups which provide fresher
nestjobs (nestjobs-subscribe@yahoogroups.com), chetana
If possible please create a new id so that u can get just about job information and also use the
same id when you participate in job forums which are conducted online nowadays.
One more point, Every Wednesday, follow "Economic Times or Times of India"(Bangalore
openings) and "The Hindu"(Chennai openings) without fail. There you can find more opportunities. Try to
get past one year Economic Times and Hindu papers from library. Collect all the jobs related ids.
(Including experience also)
Apply to all the ids. You will be regularly getting interview calls from companies.
4. How do we prepare resume?
Freshers: Companies like Infosys, TCS and Wipro expects your percentage from 10th onwards, so
it is better include all your curriculum (10th, 12th, all Degree) percentage in your resume. Resumes should
be scanable it should be simple and easy to get information within a single look. It should not contain
unwanted information.
Experience: You resume should have the following details, apart from the basic details.
1. Company name Project name
2. Project duration
3. Client
4. Team size
5. Role
6. Project description
7. Activities (We have to mention our project activities)
8. Platform
5. How do we apply?
If you get any openings specific to your skill set, follow as indicted in the advertisement.
If you are applying for multiple companies, without advertisements or for positions not specific to
your skill sets,
1. Prepare a generalized cover letter, ascii format resume(plain text format resume) and Word
format resume
2. Paste your covering letter followed by the plaintext resume in the compose box of your mail
3. Attach your word format resume.
4. Subject should be like, “Resume for Software Engineer (C, C++, JAVA and VC++)”
5. Type your id in “TO’ field and bulk of ids in “BCC” field, do apply.
6. How do we subscribe to receive yahoo group mails?
It is a very simple process. Just send an empty mail to the particular yahoo group subscription
mail id. For example, if you want to receive “nestjobs” mails. Send an empty mail to nestjobssubscribe@
Collect the previous question papers and prepare well. Never miss to go to that site before you
go for Interview/Test. There may be a chance to get the same question papers.
7. What are the books we have to prepare before we go for test/ interview?
Arithmetic Reasoning - R.S.Agarwal
Barron's GRE Guide.
Shakuntala Devi, George summer puzzle books
Technical Books:
For freshers, C and C++ is enough to get a job.
Let us C, C++, Exploring C - YASHAVANT P. KANETKAR
Turbo C++ - Robert lafore (A very good guide to get basic idea about C++ and OOPS)
Complete Reference – C, C++
8. Where do we get the details about companies and details?
http://bangaloreit.com/src/companySearch.asp (Bangalore companies)
http://www.stpc.soft.net/perform_mnc.htm (Chennai companies)
http://www.dqindia.com/content/dq_top20/dqtopcomps.asp?dqlist=top200 (top 200 IT
9. Am I suitable for IT field?
Anyone who has completed a graduation from an affiliated university is suitable for IT field. IT
field does not expect any specialization from your graduation but it expect good problem solving, logical
thinking and good communication skills. This can be achieved along with your curriculum subjects by
spending an hour per day. R.S. Agarwal is good subject oriented book for preparing aptitude. Any MBA
entrance book is suitable to prepare logical reasoning etc. In fact anyone who is not technically strong but
having logical thinking skills is very much suitable for this field. It does not mean that technical people are
not suitable.
10. Employee reference for MNC’s
If anyone need reference to attend written test or interview or forwarding resume kindly contact
any of our career guidance team members. Our career guidance team maintains the spool of reference
and provides you when the need arises.
Be confident and be cool, which is enough to clear TCS interview.
I am Prabha M.C.A, 2004 pass out. I am also in job search. Pass this word
document to all your friends who are in job searching so that everyone will be
profitable. Try and Try for yourself and don’t be too selfish that by not sending this
document to all of your friends with a fear that they can come into your competition.
Everybody has his job written in his fate somewhere and the job is also finding u so
don’t be too selfish, upset, and depressed. May GOD help us and He will definitely
help to whom who help himself and OTHERS.”
 Always keep ‘SMILING’, it does wonders 
All the Best of Luck…coz mostly IT jobs depends upon luck…most people say..so try n try and wait for
your turn

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