Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Javascript Interview Questions and Answers

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Javascript Interview Questions and Answers

What is JavaScript?
A1: JavaScript is a general-purpose programming language designed to let programmers of all skill levels control the behavior of software objects. The language is used most widely today in Web browsers whose software objects tend to represent a variety of HTML elements in a document and the document itself. But the language can be--and is--used with other kinds of objects in other environments. For example, Adobe Acrobat Forms uses JavaScript as its underlying scripting language to glue together objects that are unique to the forms generated by Adobe Acrobat. Therefore, it is important to distinguish JavaScript, the language, from the objects it can communicate with in any particular environment. When used for Web documents, the scripts go directly inside the HTML documents and are downloaded to the browser with the rest of the HTML tags and content.

A2:JavaScript is a platform-independent,event-driven, interpreted client-side scripting and programming language developed by Netscape Communications Corp. and Sun Microsystems.
How is JavaScript different from Java? 
JavaScript was developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape; Java was developed at Sun Microsystems. While the two languages share some common syntax, they were developed independently of each other and for different audiences. Java is a full-fledged programming language tailored for network computing; it includes hundreds of its own objects, including objects for creating user interfaces that appear in Java applets (in Web browsers) or standalone Java applications. In contrast, JavaScript relies on whatever environment it's operating in for the user interface, such as a Web document's form elements.
JavaScript was initially called LiveScript at Netscape while it was under development. A licensing deal between Netscape and Sun at the last minute let Netscape plug the "Java" name into the name of its scripting language. Programmers use entirely different tools for Java and JavaScript. It is also not uncommon for a programmer of one language to be ignorant of the other. The two languages don't rely on each other and are intended for different purposes. In some ways, the "Java" name on JavaScript has confused the world's understanding of the differences between the two. On the other hand, JavaScript is much easier to learn than Java and can offer a gentle introduction for newcomers who want to graduate to Java and the kinds of applications you can develop with it.
What’s relationship between JavaScript and ECMAScript? 
ECMAScript is yet another name for JavaScript (other names include LiveScript). The current JavaScript that you see supported in browsers is ECMAScript revision 3. 
How do you submit a form using Javascript? 
Use document.forms[0].submit();
(0 refers to the index of the form – if you have more than one form in a page, then the first one has the index 0, second has index 1 and so on).
How do we get JavaScript onto a web page? 
You can use several different methods of placing javascript in you pages.
You can directly add a script element inside the body of page.
1. For example, to add the "last updated line" to your pages, In your page text, add the following:
<p>blah, blah, blah, blah, blah.</p>
<script type="text/javascript" >
<!-- Hiding from old browsers
document.write("Last Updated:" +
document.lastModified);
document.close();
// -->
</script>
<p>yada, yada, yada.</p>
(Note: the first comment, "<--" hides the content of the script from browsers that don't understand javascript. The "// -->" finishes the comment. The "//" tells javascript that this is a comment so javascript doesn't try to interpret the "-->". If your audience has much older browsers, you should put this comments inside your javascript. If most of your audience has newer browsers, the comments can be omitted. For brevity, in most examples here the comments are not shown. )
The above code will look like this on Javascript enabled browsers,
2. Javascript can be placed inside the <head> element
Functions and global variables typically reside inside the <head> element.
<head>
<title>Default Test Page</title>
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript">
var myVar = "";
function timer(){setTimeout('restart()',10);}
document.onload=timer();
</script>
</head>

Javascript can be referenced from a separate file
Javascript may also a placed in a separate file on the server and referenced from an HTML page. (Don't use the shorthand ending "<script ... />). These are typically placed in the <head> element.
<script type="text/javascript" SRC="myStuff.js"></script>
How to read and write a file using javascript? 
I/O operations like reading or writing a file is not possible with client-side javascript. However , this can be done by coding a Java applet that reads files for the script.
How to detect the operating system on the client machine? 
In order to detect the operating system on the client machine, the navigator.appVersion
string (property) should be used.
How can JavaScript make a Web site easier to use? That is, are there certain JavaScript techniques that make it easier for people to use a Web site? 
JavaScript's greatest potential gift to a Web site is that scripts can make the page more immediately interactive, that is, interactive without having to submit every little thing to the server for a server program to re-render the page and send it back to the client. For example, consider a top-level navigation panel that has, say, six primary image map links into subsections of the Web site. With only a little bit of scripting, each map area can be instructed to pop up a more detailed list of links to the contents within a subsection whenever the user rolls the cursor atop a map area. With the help of that popup list of links, the user with a scriptable browser can bypass one intermediate menu page. The user without a scriptable browser (or who has disabled JavaScript) will have to drill down through a more traditional and time-consuming path to the desired content.

How can JavaScript be used to improve the "look and feel" of a Web site? By the same token, how can JavaScript be used to improve the user interface?
On their own, Web pages tend to be lifeless and flat unless you add animated images or more bandwidth-intensive content such as Java applets or other content requiring plug-ins to operate (ShockWave and Flash, for example).
Embedding JavaScript into an HTML page can bring the page to life in any number of ways. Perhaps the most visible features built into pages recently with the help of JavaScript are the so-called image rollovers: roll the cursor atop a graphic image and its appearance changes to a highlighted version as a feedback mechanism to let you know precisely what you're about to click on. But there are less visible yet more powerful enhancements to pages that JavaScript offers.
Interactive forms validation is an extremely useful application of JavaScript. While a user is entering data into form fields, scripts can examine the validity of the data--did the user type any letters into a phone number field?, for instance. Without scripting, the user has to submit the form and let a server program (CGI) check the field entry and then report back to the user. This is usually done in a batch mode (the entire form at once), and the extra transactions take a lot of time and server processing power. Interactive validation scripts can check each form field immediately after the user has entered the data, while the information is fresh in the mind.
Another helpful example is embedding small data collections into a document that scripts can look up without having to do all the server programming for database access. For instance, a small company could put its entire employee directory on a page that has its own search facility built into the script. You can cram a lot of text data into scripts no larger than an average image file, so it's not like the user has to wait forever for the data to be downloaded.
Other examples abound, such as interactive tree-structure tables of contents. More modern scriptable browsers can be scripted to pre-cache images during the page's initial download to make them appear lickety-split when needed for image swapping. I've even written some multi-screen interactive applications that run entirely on the client, and never talk to the server once everything is downloaded.
What are JavaScript types? 
Number, String, Boolean, Function, Object, Null, Undefined.
How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript? 
Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);
How to create arrays in JavaScript? 
We can declare an array like this
var scripts = new Array();
We can add elements to this array like this

scripts[0] = "PHP";
scripts[1] = "ASP";
scripts[2] = "JavaScript";
scripts[3] = "HTML";

Now our array scrips has 4 elements inside it and we can print or access them by using their index number. Note that index number starts from 0. To get the third element of the array we have to use the index number 2 . Here is the way to get the third element of an array.
document.write(scripts[2]);
We also can create an array like this
var no_array = new Array(21, 22, 23, 24, 25);
How do you target a specific frame from a hyperlink? 
Include the name of the frame in the target attribute of the hyperlink. <a href=”mypage.htm” target=”myframe”>>My Page</a>
What is a fixed-width table and its advantages?
Fixed width tables are rendered by the browser based on the widths of the columns in the first row, resulting in a faster display in case of large tables. Use the CSS style table-layout:fixed to specify a fixed width table.
If the table is not specified to be of fixed width, the browser has to wait till all data is downloaded and then infer the best width for each of the columns. This process can be very slow for large tables.
Example of using Regular Expressions for syntax checking in JavaScript


...
var re = new RegExp("^(&[A-Za-z_0-9]{1,}=[A-Za-z_0-9]{1,})*$");
var text = myWidget.value;
var OK = re.test(text);
if( ! OK ) {
alert("The extra parameters need some work.\r\n Should be something like: \"&a=1&c=4\"");
}
Where are cookies actually stored on the hard disk? 
This depends on the user's browser and OS.
In the case of Netscape with Windows OS,all the cookies are stored in a single file called

cookies.txt
c:\Program Files\Netscape\Users\username\cookies.txt
In the case of IE,each cookie is stored in a separate file namely username@website.txt.
c:\Windows\Cookies\username@Website.txt
 

How to add Buttons in JavaScript?
The most basic and ancient use of buttons are the "submit" and "clear", which appear slightly before the Pleistocene period. Notice when the "GO!" button is pressed it submits itself to itself and appends the name in the URL.
<form action="" name="buttonsGalore" method="get">
Your Name: <input type="text" name="mytext" />
<br />
<input type="submit" value="GO!" />
<input type="reset" value="Clear All" />
</form>

Another useful approach is to set the "type" to "button" and use the "onclick" event.
<script type="text/javascript">
function displayHero(button) {
alert("Your hero is \""+button.value+"\".");
}
</script>

<form action="" name="buttonsGalore" method="get">
<fieldset style="margin: 1em; text-align: center;">
<legend>Select a Hero</legend>
<input type="button" value="Agamemnon" onclick="displayHero(this)" />
<input type="button" value="Achilles" onclick="displayHero(this)" />
<input type="button" value="Hector" onclick="displayHero(this)" />
<div style="height: 1em;" />
</fieldset>
</form>
What can javascript programs do? 
Generation of HTML pages on-the-fly without accessing the Web server. The user can be given control over the browser like User input validation Simple computations can be performed on the client's machine The user's browser, OS, screen size, etc. can be detected Date and Time Handling
How to set a HTML document's background color? 
document.bgcolor property can be set to any appropriate color.
How can JavaScript be used to personalize or tailor a Web site to fit individual users? 
JavaScript allows a Web page to perform "if-then" kinds of decisions based on browser version, operating system, user input, and, in more recent browsers, details about the screen size in which the browser is running. While a server CGI program can make some of those same kinds of decisions, not everyone has access to or the expertise to create CGI programs. For example, an experienced CGI programmer can examine information about the browser whenever a request for a page is made; thus a server so equipped might serve up one page for Navigator users and a different page for Internet Explorer users. Beyond browser and operating system version, a CGI program can't know more about the environment. But a JavaScript-enhanced page can instruct the browser to render only certain content based on the browser, operating system, and even the screen size.
Scripting can even go further if the page author desires. For example, the author may include a preference screen that lets the user determine the desired background and text color combination. A script can save this information on the client in a well-regulated local file called a cookie. The next time the user comes to the site, scripts in its pages look to the cookie info and render the page in the color combination selected previously. The server is none the wiser, nor does it have to store any visitor-specific information.
Are you concerned that older browsers don't support JavaScript and thus exclude a set of Web users? individual users? 
Fragmentation of the installed base of browsers will only get worse. By definition, it can never improve unless absolutely everyone on the planet threw away their old browsers and upgraded to the latest gee-whiz versions. But even then, there are plenty of discrepancies between the scriptability of the latest Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
The situation makes scripting a challenge, especially for newcomers who may not be aware of the limitations of earlier browsers. A lot of effort in my books and ancillary material goes toward helping scripters know what features work in which browsers and how to either workaround limitations in earlier browsers or raise the compatibility common denominator.
Designing scripts for a Web site requires making some hard decisions about if, when, and how to implement the advantages scripting offers a page to your audience. For public Web sites, I recommend using scripting in an additive way: let sufficient content stand on its own, but let scriptable browser users receive an enhanced experience, preferably with the same HTML document.
What does isNaN function do? 
Return true if the argument is not a number.
What is negative infinity? 
It’s a number in JavaScript, derived by dividing negative number by zero.
In a pop-up browser window, how do you refer to the main browser window that opened it? 
Use window.opener to refer to the main window from pop-ups.
What is the data type of variables of in JavaScript? 
All variables are of object type in JavaScript.
 
What is the difference between a web-garden and a web-farm?
Web-garden - An IIS6.0 feature where you can configure an application pool as a web-garden and also specify the number of worker processes for that pool. It can help improve performance in some cases.
Web-farm - a general term referring to a cluster of physically separate machines, each running a web-server for scalability and performance (contrast this with web-garden which refers to multiple processes on one single physical machine).
How to get the contents of an input box using Javascript? 
Use the "value" property.
var myValue = window.document.getElementById("MyTextBox").value;
How to determine the state of a checkbox using Javascript? 
var checkedP = window.document.getElementById("myCheckBox").checked;
How to set the focus in an element using Javascript? 
<script> function setFocus() { if(focusElement != null) { document.forms[0].elements["myelementname"].focus(); } } </script>
How to access an external javascript file that is stored externally and not embedded? 
This can be achieved by using the following tag between head tags or between body tags.
<script src="abc.js"></script>How to access an external javascript file that is stored externally and not embedded? where abc.js is the external javscript file to be accessed.
What is the difference between an alert box and a confirmation box? 
An alert box displays only one button which is the OK button whereas the Confirm box displays two buttons namely OK and cancel.
What is a prompt box? 
A prompt box allows the user to enter input by providing a text box.
Can javascript code be broken in different lines? 
Breaking is possible within a string statement by using a backslash \ at the end but not within any other javascript statement.
that is ,
document.write("Hello \ world");
is possible but not document.write \
("hello world");
Taking a developer’s perspective, do you think that that JavaScript is easy to learn and use? 
One of the reasons JavaScript has the word "script" in it is that as a programming language, the vocabulary of the core language is compact compared to full-fledged programming languages. If you already program in Java or C, you actually have to unlearn some concepts that had been beaten into you. For example, JavaScript is a loosely typed language, which means that a variable doesn't care if it's holding a string, a number, or a reference to an object; the same variable can even change what type of data it holds while a script runs.
The other part of JavaScript implementation in browsers that makes it easier to learn is that most of the objects you script are pre-defined for the author, and they largely represent physical things you can see on a page: a text box, an image, and so on. It's easier to say, "OK, these are the things I'm working with and I'll use scripting to make them do such and such," instead of having to dream up the user interface, conceive of and code objects, and handle the interaction between objects and users. With scripting, you tend to write a _lot_ less code.
What Web sites do you feel use JavaScript most effectively (i.e., best-in-class examples)? The worst? 
The best sites are the ones that use JavaScript so transparently, that I'm not aware that there is any scripting on the page. The worst sites are those that try to impress me with how much scripting is on the page.
How about 2+5+"8"? 
Since 2 and 5 are integers, this is number arithmetic, since 8 is a string, it’s concatenation, so 78 is the result.
What is the difference between SessionState and ViewState? 
ViewState is specific to a page in a session. Session state refers to user specific data that can be accessed across all pages in the web application.
What does the EnableViewStateMac setting in an aspx page do? 
Setting EnableViewStateMac=true is a security measure that allows ASP.NET to ensure that the viewstate for a page has not been tampered with. If on Postback, the ASP.NET framework detects that there has been a change in the value of viewstate that was sent to the browser, it raises an error - Validation of viewstate MAC failed.
Use <%@ Page EnableViewStateMac="true"%> to set it to true (the default value, if this attribute is not specified is also true) in an aspx page.
How to Accessing Elements using javascript?
To do something interesting with HTML elements, we must first be able to uniquely identify which element we want. In the example
<body>
<form action="">
<input type="button" id="useless" name="mybutton" value="doNothing" />
</form>
</body>

We can use the "getElementById" method (which is generally preferred)
document.getElementById("useless").style.color = "red";
or we can use the older hierarchical navigation method,
document.forms[0].mybutton.style.color = "blue";
Notice that this uses the "name" attribute of the element to locate it.
# Example of Accessing Elements in a DOM.

<script type="text/javascript" >
function showStatus() {
var selectWidget = document.forms.beerForm.elements["beer"];
var myValue = selectWidget.options[selectWidget.selectedIndex].value;
alert('You drank a \"'+ myValue +"\"");
return true;
}
</script>

<form name="beerForm" action="">
<select name="beer">
<option selected="selected">Select Beer</option>
<option>Heineken</option>
<option>Amstel Light</option>
<option>Corona</option>
<option>Corona Light</option>
<option>Tecate</option>
</select>

<input type="button" name="submitbutton" value="Drink"
onclick="showStatus()" />
</form>
What looping structures are there in JavaScript? 
for, while, do-while loops, but no foreach.
To put a "close window" link on a page ? 
<a href='javascript:window.close()' class='mainnav'> Close </a>
How to hide javascript code from old browsers that dont run it? 
Use the below specified style of comments <script language=javascript> <!-- javascript code goes here // --> or Use the <NOSCRIPT>some html code </NOSCRIPT> tags and code the display html statements between these and this will appear on the page if the browser does not support javascript
How to comment javascript code? 
Use // for line comments and
/*

*/ for block comments
Name the numeric constants representing max,min values 
Number.MAX_VALUE
Number.MIN_VALUE
What does javascript null mean? 
The null value is a unique value representing no value or no object.
It implies no object,or null string,no valid boolean value,no number and no array object.
How do you create a new object in JavaScript? 
var obj = new Object(); or var obj = {};
How do you assign object properties? 
obj["age"] = 17 or obj.age = 17.
What’s a way to append a value to an array? 
arr[arr.length] = value;
What is this keyword? 
It refers to the current object.
How to find the selected radio button immediately using the 'this' variable?
<script>
function favAnimal(button) {
alert('You like '+button.value+'s.');
}
</script>
<input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="kangaroo"
onchange="favAnimal(this)">Kangaroo
<br /><input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="Opossum"
onchange="favAnimal(this)">Opossum
<br /><input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="Tasmanian Tiger"
onchange="favAnimal(this)">Tasmanian Tiger
How to find radio button selection when a form is submitted? 
<script type="text/javascript">
function findButton() {
var myForm = document.forms.animalForm;
var i;
for(i=0;i<myForm.marsupial.length; i++) {
if(myForm.marsupial[i].checked) {
break;
}
}
alert("You selected \""+myForm.marsupial[i].value+"\".");
}
</script>
<form name="animalForm" action="">
<input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="kangaroo" />Kangaroo
<br /><input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="Opossum" />Opossum
<br /><input type="radio" name="marsupial" value="Tasmanian Tiger" />Tasmanian Tiger


<input type="button" name="GO" value="GO" onclick="findButton()" />
How to disable an HTML object ?
document.getElementById("myObject").disabled = true;
To write messages to the screen without using "document.write()" ? 
Changing the contents of an element is a much better solution. When the method showStatus is invoked it will change the content of the span.
...
function showStatus(message) {
var element = document.getElementById("mystatus");
element.textContent = message; //for Firefox
element.innerHTML = message; //for IE (why can't we all just get along?)
return true;
}
...
<span id="mystatus">Test. </span>
...
How to Add new elements dynamically ?
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<title>t1</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
function addNode() {
var newP = document.createElement("p");
var textNode = document.createTextNode(" I'm a new text node");
newP.appendChild(textNode);
document.getElementById("firstP").appendChild(newP);
}
</script>
</head>

<body onload="addNode();" style=" background: url('../images/Sand-1280.jpg'); background-color: yellow;">

<p id="firstP">firstP<p>

</body>
</html>
How to have an element invoke a javascript on selection, instead of going to a new URL: ?
<script type="text/javascript">
function pseudoHitMe() {
alert("Ouch!");
}
</script>
<a href="javascript:pseudoHitMe()">hit me</a>
How to have the status line update when the mouse goes over a link (The support of the status line is sporadic)? 
<a href="javascript.shtml"
onmouseover="window.status='Hi There!';return true"
onmouseout="window.status='';return true">Look at the Status bar</a>
Look at the Status bar as your cursor goes over the link.
How to create a popup warning box
alert('Warning: Please enter an integer between 0 and 100.');
How to create a confirmation box? 
confirm("Do you really want to launch the missile?"); 
How to create an input box? 
prompt("What is your temperature?");
How to setting a cookie with the contents of a textbox ? 
Values stored in cookies may not have semicolons, commas, or spaces. You should use the handy "escape()" function to encode the values, and "unescape()" to retrieve them.

//Sets cookie of current value for myTextBox
function TextBoxOnchange() {
var myBox = window.document.getElementById(myTextBox");
document.cookie = "myTextBox="+ escape(myBox.value) + getExpirationString();
}

//return a string like ";expires=Thu, 5 Jan 2006 16:07:52 UTC"
function getExpirationString() {
var exp = new Date();
var threemonths = exp.getTime()+(120*24*60*60*1000);
exp.setTime(threemonths);
return ";expires="+exp.toGMTString();
}

This is called from the event handler in the HTML.

<input name="myTextBox" type="text" id="myTextBox"
onchange="javascript:TextBoxOnchange()" />
How to getting values from cookies to set widgets? 
function getCookieData(labelName) {
//from Danny Goodman
var labelLen = labelName.length;
// read cookie property only once for speed
var cookieData = document.cookie;
var cLen = cookieData.length;
var i = 0;
var cEnd;
while (i < cLen) {
var j = i + labelLen;
if (cookieData.substring(i,j) == labelName) {
cEnd = cookieData.indexOf(";",j);
if (cEnd == -1) {
cEnd = cookieData.length;
}
return unescape(cookieData.substring(j+1, cEnd));
}
i++;
}
return "";
}

//init() is called from the body tag onload function.
function init() {
setValueFromCookie("brand");
setValueFromCookie("market");
setValueFromCookie("measure");
}

function setValueFromCookie(widget) {
if( getCookieData(widget) != "") {
document.getElementById(widget).value = getCookieData(widget);
}
}

//if you name your cookies the widget ID, you can use the following helper function
function setCookie(widget) {
document.cookie = widget + "=" +
escape(document.getElementById(widget).value) + getExpirationString();

}
How to change style on an element? 
Between CSS and javascript is a weird symmetry. CSS style rules are layed on top of the DOM. The CSS property names like "font-weight" are transliterated into "myElement.style.fontWeight". The class of an element can be swapped out. For example:
document.getElementById("myText").style.color = "green";
document.getElementById("myText").style.fontSize = "20";
-or-
document.getElementById("myText").className = "regular";

How to Handle Event Handlers?
You can add an event handler in the HTML definition of the element like this,
<script type="text/javascript"><!--
function hitme() {
alert("I've been hit!");
}
// -->
</script>
<input type="button" id="hitme" name="hitme" value="hit me" onclick="hitme()"

Or, interestingly enough you can just assign the event's name on the object directly with a reference to the method you want to assign.

<input type="button" id="hitme2" name="hitme2" value="hit me2"/>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--
function hitme2() {
alert("I've been hit too!");
}
document.getElementById("hitme2").onclick = hitme2;
// -->
</script>

You can also use an anonymous method like this:

document.getElementById("hitme3").onclick = function () { alert("howdy!"); }

You can also use the W3C addEvventListener() method, but it does not work in IE yet:

<input type="button" id="hitme4" name="hitme4" value="hit me4"/>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--
function hitme4() {
alert("I've been hit four!");
}
if(document.getElementById("hitme4").addEventListener) {
document.getElementById("hitme4").addEventListener("click", hitme4, false); 
}
// -->
</script>
How to remove the event listener: ?
<script type="text/javascript"><!--
document.getElementById("hitme4").removeEventListener("click", hitme4, false);
// -->
</script>

Key Events

"onkeydown", "onkeypress", "onkeyup" events are supported both in ie and standards-based browsers.

<script type="text/javascript">
function setStatus(name,evt) {
evt = (evt) ? evt : ((event) ? event : null); /* ie or standard? */
var charCode = evt.charCode;
var status = document.getElementById("keyteststatus");
var text = name +": "+evt.keyCode;
status.innerHTML = text;
status.textContent = text;
}
</script>
<form action="">
<input type="text" name="keytest" size="1" value=""
onkeyup="setStatus('keyup',event)"
onkeydown="setStatus('keydown',event)"
/>
<p id="keyteststatus">status</p>
</form>
How to make elements invisible ?
Change the "visibility" attribute of the style object associated with your element. Remember that a hidden element still takes up space, use "display" to make the space disappear as well.

if ( x == y) {
myElement.style.visibility = 'visible';
} else {
myElement.style.visibility = 'hidden';
}
How to set the cursor to wait ?
In theory, we should cache the current state of the cursor and then put it back to its original state.
document.body.style.cursor = 'wait';
//do something interesting and time consuming
document.body.style.cursor = 'auto';
How to reload the current page ?
window.location.reload(true);
how to force a page to go to another page using JavaScript ? 
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript" ><!-- location.href="http://newhost/newpath/newfile.html"; //--></script>

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