Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Testing FAQ's

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Black box testing
not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on
requirements and functionality.
White box testing
based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Tests are
based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.
Unit testing
the most ‘micro’ scale of testing; to test particular functions or code
modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires
detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Not always
easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with
tight code; may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.
Incremental integration testing
continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; requires
that various aspects of an application’s functionality be independent enough
to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that
test drivers be developed as needed; done by programmers or by testers.
Integration testing
testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function
together correctly. The ‘parts’ can be code modules, individual
applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of
testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.
Functional testing
black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application;
this type of testing should be done by testers. This doesn’t mean that the
programmers shouldn’t check that their code works before releasing it (which
of course applies to any stage of testing.)
System testing
black box type testing that is based on overall requirement specifications;
covers all combined parts of a system.
End-to-end testing
similar to system testing; the ‘macro’ end of the test scale; involves
testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics
real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network
communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems
if appropriate.
Sanity testing
typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version
is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For
example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging
down systems to a crawl, or destroying databases, the software may not be in
a ’sane’ enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.
Regression testing
re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.
It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed, especially
near the end of the development cycle. Automated testing tools can be
especially useful for this type of testing.
Acceptance testing
final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer, or based
on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time.
Load testing
testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of a web site
under a range of loads to determine at what point the systems response time
degrades or fails.
Stress testing
term often used interchangeably with ‘load’ and ‘performance’ testing. Also
used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under
unusually heavy loads, heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs, input
of large numerical values, large complex queries to a database system, etc.
Performance testing
term often used interchangeably with ’stress’ and ‘load’ testing. Ideally
‘performance’ testing (and any other ‘type’ of testing) is defined in
requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.
Usability testing
testing for ‘user-friendliness’. Clearly this is subjective, and will depend
on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video
recording of user sessions, and other techniques can be used. Programmers
and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.
Install/uninstall testing
testing of full, partial, or upgrade install/uninstall processes.
Recovery testing
testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other
catastrophic problems.
Security testing
testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or
external access, willful damage, etc; may require sophisticated testing
Compatibility testing
testing how well software performs in a particular
hardware/software/ operating system/network/ etc. environment.
Exploratory testing
often taken to mean a creative, informal software test that is not based on
formal test plans or test cases; testers may be learning the software as
they test it.
Ad-hoc testing
similar to exploratory testing, but often taken to mean that the testers
have significant understanding of the software before testing it.
User acceptance testing
determining if software is satisfactory to an end-user or customer.
Comparison testing
comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.
Alpha testing
testing of an application when development is nearing completion; minor
design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Typically done
by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.
Beta testing
testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final
bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Typically done by
end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.
Mutation testing
a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful, by
deliberately introducing various code changes (’bugs’) and retesting with
the original test data/cases to determine if the ‘bugs’ are detected. Proper
implementation requires large computational resources.
Widely Asking Testing Interview Questions  Testcase vs Usecase
A *use case* is a: A highlevel scenario where you specify the functionality
of the application from a business perspective.
Whereas a *test case* is: The implementation of the highlevel
scenario(usecase) wherein one gives detailed and step-by-step account of
procedures to test a particular functionality of the application. Things get
lot technical here.
A use case describes an entire flow of intercation that the user has with
the system/application for e.g. a user logging into the system and searching
for a flight, booking it and then logging out is a use case. There are
multiple ways a user can interact with a system, and they all map to
positive/ negative use cases.
Test cases are written on the basis of use cases. The test cases check if
the various functionalities  that the user uses to interact with the system
is working fine or not. Test matrix VS Test metrix
Test matrix: Tester will write test matrix in test specification document
which keep track of testing flow, testing type and test cases activities
Test Metrix: This will define the scale up to What level of testing can be
achieved by doing particular testing on application in the scale of 100%
testing meter?
 Web testing Vs GUI testing Web testing is Server side testing and GUI
Testing is Client Side Testing GUI testing is the part of web testing as
well as desktop testing.
In GUI testing we check the graphical user interface that is Font size, font
color, links, labels etc.
Web testing means it is an 3 tier architecture, here we check the
performance of the application (volume, load, stress). Here we do the
compatibility testing, user interface testing etc. Explain V model in
*"V" Model is one of the SDLC Methodologies. *
*In this methodology Development and Testing takes place at the same time
with the same kind of information in their hands. Typical "V" shows
Development Phases on the Left hand side and Testing Phases on the Right
hand side.*
*Development Team follow "Do-Procedure" to achive the goals of the company
and Testing Team follow "check-Procedure" to verify them**.*
                              User Acceptance
        Design                                                      System
                    HLD                                       Integration
   *SDLC*                   LLD                    Unit Testing       *STLC
web application Vs client server application testing

*S. No*
**Client   Server Testing*
**Web Based Testing** *
This involves testing of the client installation, connectivity between the
Client and the Server, configuration required to connect to the server apart
from the regular GUI, functional testing.
You will be having specific client version for specific OS.
Here client is your browser, you can skip the installation testing, checking
the connectivity between browser and your server etc but you have a addition
of testing different types of browsers and on different platforms.
Client Server Application are those that runs on LAN, WAN but is not
connected to www or internet
The web based Applications  are those that are connected with www, internet.
Ex: Yahoo and Google etc
It Uses Connection Oriented (TCP/IP) Protocol
It Uses HTTP Protocol* *
Your going to your bank and asking a/c balance to customer server. He/she
use banking system application to check you're a/c balance – that is C/S
Also you can go to net cafe and check you a/c balance that is Web
application. You can imagine the facilities. What all the customer service
executive can do in his/her system and what all you can do from you net cafe

C-S testing needs a network
The Web test can be performed on a stand alone machine.
In Client/Server testing, test phases can include :
Build Acceptance Testing
Prototype  Testing
System Reliability Testing
Multiple phases of regression testing, and beta testing.
For web based testing –
Validation the HTML,
Check for broken links,
Speed - Access the site,
Browser independence - Try different browsers,
Check printed pages,
Client/Server Application: -
            It is 2 tier architecture.
            It servers restricted number of users.
            FTP will process the request which is given by the client.
  Advantages:- High Performance
  Disadvantage: -Hard to maintain.

 Web Server:-
          It is min 3 tier architecture.
          It servers n number of users.
          Browser will process the request.
   Disadvantage: -Slow Performance

 *System Vs End-to-End Testing*

 *System testing* - black-box type testing that is based on overall
requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of a system.
*End-to-end testing* - similar to system testing; the 'macro' end of the
test scale; involves testing of a complete application environment in a
situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database,
using network communications, or interacting with other hardware,
applications, or systems if appropriate.

 System Testing can be limited up to functional as well as non functional
testing of the System, but when we talk about end-to-end testing, all the
interfaces, sub-systems must come into picture.  All the end-to-end
scenarios should be considered and executed before deployment of the system
into actual environment.
 Smoke Vs Sanity testing
Sanity Testing:

 This testing will be done by the tester to check whether the new
application is ready for the major testing effort.

 Smoke testing :

 this just like sanity testing, but this testing will be done by the
developer before releasing to the tester for the further testing..
        LoadRunner interview questions<http://www.techinterviews.com/?p=199>

  What is load testing? - Load testing is to test that if the application
  works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous
  users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage
  What is Performance testing? - Timing for both read and update
  transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are
  being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone
  and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple
  transactions on the timing of a single transaction.
  Did u use LoadRunner? What version? - Yes. Version 7.2.
  Explain the Load testing process? -
  Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan
  to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing
  objectives. Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that
  contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole,
  and tasks measured as transactions. Step 3: Creating the scenario. A
  scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It
  includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the
  scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create
  manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we
  define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of
  Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a
  goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to
  achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us. Step 4: Running
  the scenario.
  We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform
  tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration
  and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual
  Vusers.. Step 5: Monitoring the scenario.
  We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime,
  transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web
  application server resource, database server resource, network delay,
  streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and
  Java performance monitors. Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario
  execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under
  different loads. We use LoadRunner’s graphs and reports to analyze the
  application’s performance.
  When do you do load and performance Testing? - We perform load testing
  once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures
  are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on
  functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing
  focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a
  typical application- testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in
  simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the
  response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different
  software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and
  thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance
  What are the components of LoadRunner? - The components of LoadRunner are
  The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner
  Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.
  What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script? - The
  Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It
  enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and
  communication protocols.
  What Component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in
  multi user mode? - The Controller component is used to playback the script
  in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a vuser script
  is executed by a number of vusers in a group.
  What is a rendezvous point? - You insert rendezvous points* *into Vuser
  scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous
points* *instruct
  Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a
  certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For
  example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a
  rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts
  at the same time.
  What is a scenario? - A scenario defines the events that occur during
  each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the
  number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on
  which the virtual users run their emulations.
  Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script? - We use VuGen to
  develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business
  processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the
  activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based
  applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all
  the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen
  to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server;
  Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function
  calls into a Vuser script.
  Why do you create parameters? - Parameters are like script variables.
  They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users.
  Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run.
  Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the
  Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.
  What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation
  and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are
  unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries.
  Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate
  values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic
  correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be
  application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are
  created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to
  correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.
  How do you find out where correlation is required? Give few examples from
  your projects? - Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the
  list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be
  correlated. Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can
  look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be
  correlated.  In my project, there was a unique id developed for each
  customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated
  automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to
  correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I
  did using scan for correlation.
  Where do you set automatic correlation options? - Automatic correlation
  from *web point of view* can be set in recording options and correlation
  tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either
  issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that
  correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show
  output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab
  and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific
  value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and
  specify how the value to be created.
  What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script? -
  Web_reg_save_ param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.
  When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose
  standard and extended logs? - Once we debug our script and verify that it is
  functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a
  scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you
  *Standard* log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent
  during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large
  load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is
  automatically disabled Extended Log Option: Select
  *extended* log to create an extended log, including warnings and other
  messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you
  copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can
  specify which additional information should be added to the extended log
  using the Extended log options.
  How do you debug a LoadRunner script? - VuGen contains two options to
  help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The
  Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of
  the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information
  is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class
  within your script using the lr_set_debug_ message function. This is useful
  if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script
  How do you write user defined functions in LR? Give me few functions you
  wrote in your previous project? - Before we create the User Defined
  functions we need to create the external
  library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin
  directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as
  a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec
  (dllexport) char* <function name>(char*, char*)Examples of user defined
  functions are as follows:GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of
  the user defined functions used in my earlier project.
  What are the changes you can make in run-time settings? - The Run Time
  Settings that we make are: a) Pacing - It has iteration count. b) Log -
  Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and c) Extended Think Time -
  In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think
  time. d) General - Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as
  multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.
  Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing? - We set Iterations in the
  Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time
  settings, Pacing tab, set number of iterations.
  How do you perform functional testing under load? - Functionality under
  load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the
  amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.
  What is Ramp up? How do you set this? - This option is used to gradually
  increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set
  and a value to wait between intervals can be
  specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’
  What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread? - VuGen provides
  the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per
  generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is
  loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory.
  This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single
  generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the
  driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of
  Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver
  program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.
  If you want to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do
  that? - The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It
  instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the
  vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you
  need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error
  condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned
  the status "Stopped". For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the
  “Continue on error” option in Run-Time Settings.
  What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput? - The
  Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received
  from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction
  response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response
  time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response
  time would occur approximately at the same time.
  Explain the Configuration of your systems? - The configuration of our
  systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers.
  The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings,
  memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc.
  This system component configuration should match with the overall system
  configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server,
  the database server, and any other components that go with this larger
  system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.
  How do you identify the performance bottlenecks? - Performance
  Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors. These monitors might be
  application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors
  and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our
  scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are
  usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay
  graphs, etc.
  If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the
  problem? - The problem could be in the system itself or in the application
  server or in the code written for the application.
  How did you find web server related issues? - Using Web resource monitors
  we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can
  analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that
  occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the
  number of downloaded pages per second..
  How did you find database related issues? - By running “Database” monitor
  and help of “Data Resource Graph” we can find database related issues. E.g.
  You can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the
  controller and than you can see database related issues
  Explain all the web recording options?
  What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph? -
  Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common
  x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph show’s the current graph’s value &
  Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was
  merged. Correlate Graph*:* Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each
  other. The active graph’s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of
  the graph that was merged becomes merged graph’s Y-axis.
  How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria? - Load test is planned
  to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and
  from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task
  Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram
  gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and
  the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this
  Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions
  name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.
  What does vuser_init action contain? - Vuser_init action contains
  procedures to login to a server.
  What does vuser_end action contain? - Vuser_end section contains log off
  What is think time? How do you change the threshold? -  * Think time* is
  the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user
  receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the
  data before responding. This delay is known as the* **think time*. Changing
  the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think
  time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change
  the think time threshold in the Recording options of the Vugen.
  What is the difference between standard log and extended log? - The
  standard log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script
  execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type Extended log sends
  a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used
  during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution.
  Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.
  Explain the following functions: - lr_debug_message - The
  lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the output log when the
  specified message class is set. lr_output_message - The lr_output_message
  function sends notifications to the Controller Output window and the Vuser
  log file. lr_error_message - The lr_error_message function sends an error
  message to the LoadRunner Output window. lrd_stmt - The lrd_stmt function
  associates a character string (usually a SQL statement) with a cursor. This
  function sets a SQL statement to be processed. lrd_fetch - The lrd_fetch
  function fetches the next row from the result set.
  Throughput -  If the throughput scales upward as time progresses and the
  number of Vusers increase, this indicates that the bandwidth is sufficient.
  If the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers
  increased, it would
  be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume
  data delivered.
  Types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario -  Load Runner provides you with
  five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:
     The number of concurrent Vusers
     The number of hits per second
     The number of transactions per second
     The number of pages per minute
     The transaction response time that you want your scenario
  Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks) : In Running Vuser graph correlated with
  the response time graph you can see that as the number of Vusers increases,
  the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually
  increases. In other words, the average response time steadily increases as
  the load
  increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increase in the average
  time. We say that the test *broke the server*. That is the mean time
  before failure (MTBF). The response time clearly began to degrade when there
  were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.
  What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation
  and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are
  unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries.
  Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate
  values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic
  correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be
  application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are
  created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to
  correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.
  Where do you set automatic correlation options? - Automatic correlation
  from web point of view, can be set in recording options and correlation tab.
  Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue
  online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that
  correlation.  Automatic correlation for database, can be done using show
  output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab
  and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific
  value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and
  specify how the value to be created.
  What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script? -
  Web_reg_save_ param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

 QTP interview questions <http://www.techinterviews.com/?p=310>

  *What are the Features & Benefits of Quick Test Pro (QTP 8.0)?* -
  Operates stand-alone, or integrated into Mercury Business Process Testing
  and Mercury Quality Center. Introduces next-generation zero-configuration
  Keyword Driven testing technology in Quick Test Professional 8.0 allowing
  for fast test creation, easier maintenance, and more powerful data-driving
  capability. Identifies objects with Unique Smart Object Recognition, even if
  they change from build to build, enabling reliable unattended script
  execution. Collapses test documentation and test creation to a single step
  with Auto-documentation technology. Enables thorough validation of
  applications through a full complement of checkpoints.
  *How to handle the exceptions using recovery scenario manager in QTP?* -
  There are 4 trigger events during which a recovery scenario should be
  activated. A pop up window appears in an opened application during the test
  run: A property of an object changes its state or value, A step in the test
  does not run successfully, An open application fails during the test run,
  These triggers are considered as exceptions.You can instruct QTP to recover
  unexpected events or errors that occurred in your testing environment during
  test run. Recovery scenario manager provides a wizard that guides you
  through the defining recovery scenario. Recovery scenario has three steps:
  1. Triggered Events 2. Recovery steps 3. Post Recovery Test-Run
  *What is the use of Text output value in QTP?* - Output values enable to
  view the values that the application talks during run time. When
  parameterized, the values change for each iteration. Thus by creating output
  values, we can capture the values that the application takes for each run
  and output them to the data table.
  *How to use the Object spy in QTP 8.0 version?* - There are two ways to
  Spy the objects in QTP: 1) Thru file toolbar, In the File Toolbar click on
  the last toolbar button (an icon showing a person with hat). 2) True Object
  repository Dialog, In Object repository dialog click on the button object
  spy. In the Object spy Dialog click on the button showing hand symbol. The
  pointer now changes in to a hand symbol and we have to point out the object
  to spy the state of the object if at all the object is not visible. or
  window is minimized then, hold the Ctrl button and activate the required
  window to and release the Ctrl button.
  *How Does Run time data (Parameterization) is handled in QTP?* - You can
  then enter test data into the Data Table, an integrated spreadsheet with the
  full functionality of Excel, to manipulate data sets and create multiple
  test iterations, without programming, to expand test case coverage. Data can
  be typed in or imported from databases, spreadsheets, or text files.
  *What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?* - Quick Test’s Keyword
  Driven approach, test automation experts have full access to the underlying
  test and object properties, via an integrated scripting and debugging
  environment that is round-trip synchronized with the Keyword View. Advanced
  testers can view and edit their tests in the Expert View, which reveals the
  underlying industry-standard VBScript that Quick Test Professional
  automatically generates. Any changes made in the Expert View are
  automatically synchronized with the Keyword View.
  *Explain about the Test Fusion Report of QTP?* - Once a tester has run a
  test, a Test Fusion report displays all aspects of the test run: a
  high-level results overview, an expandable Tree View of the test specifying
  exactly where application failures occurred, the test data used, application
  screen shots for every step that highlight any discrepancies, and detailed
  explanations of each checkpoint pass and failure. By combining Test Fusion
  reports with Quick Test Professional, you can share reports across an entire
  QA and development team.
  *Which environments does QTP support?* - Quick Test Professional supports
  functional testing of all enterprise environments, including Windows,
  Web,..NET, Java/J2EE, SAP, Siebel, Oracle, PeopleSoft, Visual Basic,
  ActiveX, mainframe terminal emulators, and Web services.
  *What is QTP?* - Quick Test is a graphical interface record-playback
  automation tool. It is able to work with any web, java or windows client
  application. Quick Test enables you to test standard web objects and ActiveX
  controls. In addition to these environments, Quick Test Professional also
  enables you to test Java applets and applications and multimedia objects on
  Applications as well as standard Windows applications, Visual Basic 6
  applications and.NET framework applications
  *Explain QTP Testing process?* - Quick Test testing process consists of 6
  main phases:
  *Create your test plan* - Prior to automating there should be a detailed
  description of the test including the exact steps to follow, data to be
  input, and all items to be verified by the test. The verification
  information should include both data validations and existence or state
  verifications of objects in the application.
  *Recording a session on your application* - As you navigate through your
  application, Quick Test graphically displays each step you perform in the
  form of a collapsible icon-based test tree. A step is any user action that
  causes or makes a change in your site, such as clicking a link or image, or
  entering data in a form.
  *Enhancing your test* - Inserting checkpoints into your test lets you
  search for a specific value of a page, object or text string, which helps
  you identify whether or not your application is functioning correctly. NOTE:
  Checkpoints can be added to a test as you record it or after the fact via
  the Active Screen. It is much easier and faster to add the checkpoints
  during the recording process. Broadening the scope of your test by replacing
  fixed values with parameters lets you check how your application performs
  the same operations with multiple sets of data. Adding logic and conditional
  statements to your test enables you to add sophisticated checks to your
  *Debugging your test* - If changes were made to the script, you need to
  debug it to check that it operates smoothly and without interruption.
  *Running your test on a new version of your application* - You run a test
  to check the behavior of your application. While running, Quick Test
  connects to your application and performs each step in your test.
  *Analyzing the test results* - You examine the test results to pinpoint
  defects in your application.
  *Reporting defects* - As you encounter failures in the application when
  analyzing test results, you will create defect reports in Defect Reporting
  *Explain the QTP Tool interface.* - It contains the following key
  elements: Title bar, displaying the name of the currently open test, Menu
  bar, displaying menus of Quick Test commands, File toolbar, containing
  buttons to assist you in managing tests, Test toolbar, containing buttons
  used while creating and maintaining tests, Debug toolbar, containing buttons
  used while debugging tests.. Note: The Debug toolbar is not displayed when
  you open Quick Test for the first time. You can display the Debug toolbar by
  choosing View — Toolbars — Debug. Action toolbar, containing buttons and a
  list of actions, enabling you to view the details of an individual action or
  the entire test flow. Note: The Action toolbar is not displayed when you
  open Quick Test for the first time.. You can display the Action toolbar by
  choosing View — Toolbars — Action. If you insert a reusable or external
  action in a test, the Action toolbar is displayed automatically. Test pane,
  containing two tabs to view your test-the Tree View and the Expert View
  ,Test Details pane, containing the Active Screen. Data Table, containing two
  tabs, Global and Action, to assist you in parameterizing your test. Debug
  Viewer pane, containing three tabs to assist you in debugging your
  test-Watch Expressions, Variables, and Command. (The Debug Viewer pane can
  be opened only when a test run pauses at a breakpoint.) Status bar,
  displaying the status of the test
  *How does QTP recognize Objects in AUT?* - Quick Test stores the
  definitions for application objects in a file called the Object Repository.
  As you record your test, Quick Test will add an entry for each item you
  interact with. Each Object Repository entry will be identified by a logical
  name (determined automatically by Quick Test), and will contain a set of
  properties (type, name, etc) that uniquely identify each object. Each line
  in the Quick Test script will contain a reference to the object that you
  interacted with, a call to the appropriate method (set, click, check) and
  any parameters for that method (such as the value for a call to the set
  method). The references to objects in the script will all be identified by
  the logical name, rather than any physical, descriptive properties.
  *What are the types of Object Repositories in QTP?* - Quick Test has two
  types of object repositories for storing object information: shared object
  repositories and action object repositories. You can choose which type of
  object repository you want to use as the default type for new tests, and you
  can change the default as necessary for each new test. The object repository
  per-action mode is the default setting. In this mode, Quick Test
  automatically creates an object repository file for each action in your test
  so that you can create and run tests without creating, choosing, or
  modifying object repository files. However, if you do modify values in an
  action object repository, your changes do not have any effect on other
  actions. Therefore, if the same test object exists in more than one action
  and you modify an object’s property values in one action, you may need to
  make the same change in every action (and any test) containing the object.
  *Explain the check points in QTP?* - A checkpoint verifies that expected
  information is displayed in an Application while the test is running. You
  can add eight types of checkpoints to your test for standard web objects
  using QTP. A page checkpoint checks the characteristics of an Application. A
  text checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate
  place on an Application. An object checkpoint (Standard) checks the values
  of an object on an Application. An image checkpoint checks the values of an
  image on an Application. A table checkpoint checks information within a
  table on a Application. An Accessibilityy checkpoint checks the web page for
  Section 508 compliance. An XML checkpoint checks the contents of individual
  XML data files or XML documents that are part of your Web application. A
  database checkpoint checks the contents of databases accessed by your web
  *In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP?* -
  We can add checkpoints while recording the application or we can add after
  recording is completed using Active screen (Note : To perform the second one
  The Active screen must be enabled while recording).
  *How does QTP identify objects in the application? * - QTP identifies the
  object in the application by Logical Name and Class.
  *What is Parameterizing Tests?* - When you test your application, you may
  want to check how it performs the same operations with multiple sets of
  data. For example, suppose you want to check how your application responds
  to ten separate sets of data. You could record ten separate tests, each with
  its own set of data. Alternatively, you can create a parameterized test that
  runs ten times: each time the test runs, it uses a different set of data.
  *What is test object model in QTP?* - The test object model is a large
  set of object types or classes that Quick Test uses to represent the objects
  in your application. Each test object class has a list of properties that
  can uniquely identify objects of that class and a set of relevant methods
  that Quick Test can record for it. A test object is an object that Quick
  Test creates in the test or component to represent the actual object in your
  application. Quick Test stores information about the object that will help
  it identify and check the object during the run session.
  *What is Object Spy in QTP?* - Using the Object Spy, you can view the
  properties of any object in an open application. You use the Object Spy
  pointer to point to an object. The Object Spy displays the selected object’s
  hierarchy tree and its properties and values in the Properties tab of the
  Object Spy dialog box.
  *What is the Diff between Image check-point and Bit map Check point?* -
  Image checkpoints enable you to check the properties of a Web image. You can
  check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While creating a
  test or component, you specify the area you want to check by selecting an
  object. You can check an entire object or any area within an object. Quick
  Test captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a checkpoint in
  the test or component. You can also choose to save only the selected area of
  the object with your test or component in order to save disk Space. For
  example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city the
  user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the new
  map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the
  map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms in
  correctly. You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing
  environments (as long as the appropriate add-ins are loaded). Note: The
  results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as operating
  system, screen resolution, and color settings.
  *How many ways we can parameterize data in QTP?* - There are four types
  of parameters: Test, action or component parameters enable you to use values
  passed from your test or component, or values from other actions in your
  test. Data Table parameters enable you to create a data-driven test (or
  action) that runs several times using the data you supply. In each
  repetition, or iteration, Quick Test uses a different value from the Data
  Table. Environment variable parameters enable you to use variable values
  from other sources during the run session. These may be values you supply,
  or values that Quick Test generates for you based on conditions and options
  you choose. Random number parameters enable you to insert random numbers as
  values in your test or component. For example, to check how your application
  handles small and large ticket orders, you can have Quick Test generate a
  random number and insert it in a number of tickets edit field.
  *How do u do batch testing in WR & is it possible to do in QTP, if so
  explain?* - Batch Testing in WR is nothing but running the whole test set
  by selecting Run Test set from the Execution Grid. The same is possible with
  QTP also. If our test cases are automated then by selecting Run Test set all
  the test scripts can be executed. In this process the Scripts get executed
  one by one by keeping all the remaining scripts in Waiting mode.
  *If I give some thousand tests to execute in 2 days what do u do?* -
  Adhoc testing is done. It Covers the least basic functionalities to verify
  that the system is working fine.
  *What does it mean when a check point is in red color? what do u do?* - A
  red color indicates failure. Here we analyze the cause for failure whether
  it is a Script Issue or Environment Issue or a Application issue.
  *What is Object Spy in QTP?* - Using the Object Spy, you can view the
  properties of any object in an open application. You use the Object Spy
  pointer to point to an object. The Object Spy displays the selected object’s
  hierarchy tree and its properties and values in the Properties tab of the
  Object Spy dialog box.
  *What is the file extension of the code file & object repository file in
  QTP?* - Code file extension is.vbs and object repository is.tsr
  *Explain the concept of object repository & how QTP recognizes
objects?*- Object Repository: displays a tree of all objects in the
current component
  or in the current action or entire test (depending on the object repository
  mode you selected). We can view or modify the test object description of any
  test object in the repository or to add new objects to the repository.
  Quicktest learns the default property values and determines in which test
  object class it fits. If it is not enough it adds assistive properties, one
  by one to the description until it has compiled the unique description. . If
  no assistive properties are available, then it adds a special Ordinal
  identifier such as objects location on the page or in the source code.
  *What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page
  when using descriptive programming? * - Name would be another property
  apart from title that we can use.
  *Give me an example where you have used a COM interface in your QTP
  project?* - com interface appears in the scenario of front end and back
  end. for eg:if you r using oracle as back end and front end as VB or any
  language then for better compatibility we will go for an interface. of which
  COM will be one among those interfaces. Create object creates handle to the
  instance of the specified object so that we program can use the methods on
  the specified object. It is used for implementing Automation(as defined by
  *Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.* - Essentially
  all configuration and run functionality provided via the Quick Test
  interface is in some way represented in the Quick Test automation object
  model via objects, methods, and properties. Although a one-on-one comparison
  cannot always be made, most dialog boxes in Quick Test have a corresponding
  automation object, most options in dialog boxes can be set and/or retrieved
  using the corresponding object property, and most menu commands and other
  operations have corresponding automation methods. You can use the objects,
  methods, and properties exposed by the Quick Test automation object model,
  along with standard programming elements such as loops and conditional
  statements to design your program.

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