Thursday, November 18, 2010

sql faq's oralce

SQL ORDER BY




________________________________________

The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the result.

________________________________________

Sort the Rows

The ORDER BY clause is used to sort the rows.

Orders:

Company OrderNumber

Sega 3412

ABC Shop 5678

W3Schools 6798

W3Schools 2312

Example

To display the company names in alphabetical order:

SELECT Company, OrderNumber FROM Orders

ORDER BY Company

Result:

Company OrderNumber

ABC Shop 5678

Sega 3412

W3Schools 6798

W3Schools 2312

Example

To display the company names in alphabetical order AND the OrderNumber in numerical order:

SELECT Company, OrderNumber FROM Orders

ORDER BY Company, OrderNumber

Result:

Company OrderNumber

ABC Shop 5678

Sega 3412

W3Schools 2312

W3Schools 6798

Example

To display the company names in reverse alphabetical order:

SELECT Company, OrderNumber FROM Orders

ORDER BY Company DESC

Result:

Company OrderNumber

W3Schools 6798

W3Schools 2312

Sega 3412

ABC Shop 5678

Example

To display the company names in reverse alphabetical order AND the OrderNumber in numerical order:

SELECT Company, OrderNumber FROM Orders

ORDER BY Company DESC, OrderNumber ASC

Result:

Company OrderNumber

W3Schools 2312

W3Schools 6798

Sega 3412

ABC Shop 5678

Notice that there are two equal company names (W3Schools) in the result above. The only time you will see the second column in ASC order would be when there are duplicated values in the first sort column, or a handful of nulls.

SQL AND & OR



________________________________________

AND & OR

AND and OR join two or more conditions in a WHERE clause.

The AND operator displays a row if ALL conditions listed are true. The OR operator displays a row if ANY of the conditions listed are true.

________________________________________

Original Table (used in the examples)

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Svendson Stephen Kaivn 18 Sandnes



________________________________________

Example

Use AND to display each person with the first name equal to "Tove", and the last name equal to "Svendson":

SELECT * FROM Persons

WHERE FirstName='Tove'

AND LastName='Svendson'

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Example

Use OR to display each person with the first name equal to "Tove", or the last name equal to "Svendson":

SELECT * FROM Persons

WHERE firstname='Tove'

OR lastname='Svendson'

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Svendson Stephen Kaivn 18 Sandnes



Example

You can also combine AND and OR (use parentheses to form complex expressions):

SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE

(FirstName='Tove' OR FirstName='Stephen')

AND LastName='Svendson'

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Svendson Stephen Kaivn 18 Sandnes

SQL IN



________________________________________

IN

The IN operator may be used if you know the exact value you want to return for at least one of the columns.

SELECT column_name FROM table_name

WHERE column_name IN (value1,value2,..)



________________________________________

Original Table (used in the examples)

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Nordmann Anna Neset 18 Sandnes

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes



________________________________________

Example 1

To display the persons with LastName equal to "Hansen" or "Pettersen", use the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM Persons

WHERE LastName IN ('Hansen','Pettersen')

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

SQL BETWEEN



________________________________________

BETWEEN ... AND

The BETWEEN ... AND operator selects a range of data between two values. These values can be numbers, text, or dates.

SELECT column_name FROM table_name

WHERE column_name

BETWEEN value1 AND value2



________________________________________

Original Table (used in the examples)

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Nordmann Anna Neset 18 Sandnes

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes



________________________________________

Example 1

To display the persons alphabetically between (and including) "Hansen" and exclusive "Pettersen", use the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE LastName

BETWEEN 'Hansen' AND 'Pettersen'

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Nordmann Anna Neset 18 Sandnes

IMPORTANT! The BETWEEN...AND operator is treated differently in different databases. With some databases a person with the LastName of "Hansen" or "Pettersen" will not be listed (BETWEEN..AND only selects fields that are between and excluding the test values). With some databases a person with the last name of "Hansen" or "Pettersen" will be listed (BETWEEN..AND selects fields that are between and including the test values). With other databases a person with the last name of "Hansen" will be listed, but "Pettersen" will not be listed (BETWEEN..AND selects fields between the test values, including the first test value and excluding the last test value). Therefore: Check how your database treats the BETWEEN....AND operator!

________________________________________

Example 2

To display the persons outside the range used in the previous example, use the NOT operator:

SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE LastName

NOT BETWEEN 'Hansen' AND 'Pettersen'

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

SQL Alias



________________________________________

With SQL, aliases can be used for column names and table names.

________________________________________

Column Name Alias

The syntax is:

SELECT column AS column_alias FROM table



________________________________________

Table Name Alias

The syntax is:

SELECT column FROM table AS table_alias



________________________________________

Example: Using a Column Alias

This table (Persons):

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

And this SQL:

SELECT LastName AS Family, FirstName AS Name

FROM Persons

Returns this result:

Family Name

Hansen Ola

Svendson Tove

Pettersen Kari



________________________________________

Example: Using a Table Alias

This table (Persons):

LastName FirstName Address City

Hansen Ola Timoteivn 10 Sandnes

Svendson Tove Borgvn 23 Sandnes

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20 Stavanger

And this SQL:

SELECT LastName, FirstName

FROM Persons AS Employees

Returns this result:

Table Employees:

LastName FirstName

Hansen Ola

Svendson Tove

Pettersen Kari

SQL JOIN



________________________________________

Joins and Keys

Sometimes we have to select data from two or more tables to make our result complete. We have to perform a join.

Tables in a database can be related to each other with keys. A primary key is a column with a unique value for each row. Each primary key value must be unique within the table. The purpose is to bind data together, across tables, without repeating all of the data in every table.

In the "Employees" table below, the "Employee_ID" column is the primary key, meaning that no two rows can have the same Employee_ID. The Employee_ID distinguishes two persons even if they have the same name.

When you look at the example tables below, notice that:

• The "Employee_ID" column is the primary key of the "Employees" table

• The "Prod_ID" column is the primary key of the "Orders" table

• The "Employee_ID" column in the "Orders" table is used to refer to the persons in the "Employees" table without using their names

________________________________________

Employees:

Employee_ID Name

01 Hansen, Ola

02 Svendson, Tove

03 Svendson, Stephen

04 Pettersen, Kari

Orders:

Prod_ID Product Employee_ID

234 Printer 01

657 Table 03

865 Chair 03



________________________________________

Referring to Two Tables

We can select data from two tables by referring to two tables, like this:

Example

Who has ordered a product, and what did they order?

SELECT Employees.Name, Orders.Product

FROM Employees, Orders

WHERE Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

Result

Name Product

Hansen, Ola Printer

Svendson, Stephen Table

Svendson, Stephen Chair

Example

Who ordered a printer?

SELECT Employees.Name

FROM Employees, Orders

WHERE Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

AND Orders.Product='Printer'

Result

Name

Hansen, Ola



________________________________________

Using Joins

OR we can select data from two tables with the JOIN keyword, like this:

Example INNER JOIN

Syntax

SELECT field1, field2, field3

FROM first_table

INNER JOIN second_table

ON first_table.keyfield = second_table.foreign_keyfield

Who has ordered a product, and what did they order?

SELECT Employees.Name, Orders.Product

FROM Employees

INNER JOIN Orders

ON Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

The INNER JOIN returns all rows from both tables where there is a match. If there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders, those rows will not be listed.

Result

Name Product

Hansen, Ola Printer

Svendson, Stephen Table

Svendson, Stephen Chair

Example LEFT JOIN

Syntax

SELECT field1, field2, field3

FROM first_table

LEFT JOIN second_table

ON first_table.keyfield = second_table.foreign_keyfield

List all employees, and their orders - if any.

SELECT Employees.Name, Orders.Product

FROM Employees

LEFT JOIN Orders

ON Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

The LEFT JOIN returns all the rows from the first table (Employees), even if there are no matches in the second table (Orders). If there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders, those rows also will be listed.

Result

Name Product

Hansen, Ola Printer

Svendson, Tove

Svendson, Stephen Table

Svendson, Stephen Chair

Pettersen, Kari

Example RIGHT JOIN

Syntax

SELECT field1, field2, field3

FROM first_table

RIGHT JOIN second_table

ON first_table.keyfield = second_table.foreign_keyfield

List all orders, and who has ordered - if any.

SELECT Employees.Name, Orders.Product

FROM Employees

RIGHT JOIN Orders

ON Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

The RIGHT JOIN returns all the rows from the second table (Orders), even if there are no matches in the first table (Employees). If there had been any rows in Orders that did not have matches in Employees, those rows also would have been listed.

Result

Name Product

Hansen, Ola Printer

Svendson, Stephen Table

Svendson, Stephen Chair

Example

Who ordered a printer?

SELECT Employees.Name

FROM Employees

INNER JOIN Orders

ON Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

WHERE Orders.Product = 'Printer'

Result

Name

Hansen, Ola

SQL UNION and UNION ALL



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UNION

The UNION command is used to select related information from two tables, much like the JOIN command. However, when using the UNION command all selected columns need to be of the same data type.

Note: With UNION, only distinct values are selected.

SQL Statement 1

UNION

SQL Statement 2



________________________________________

Employees_Norway:

E_ID E_Name

01 Hansen, Ola

02 Svendson, Tove

03 Svendson, Stephen

04 Pettersen, Kari

Employees_USA:

E_ID E_Name

01 Turner, Sally

02 Kent, Clark

03 Svendson, Stephen

04 Scott, Stephen



________________________________________

Using the UNION Command

Example

List all different employee names in Norway and USA:

SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_Norway

UNION

SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_USA

Result

E_Name

Hansen, Ola

Svendson, Tove

Svendson, Stephen

Pettersen, Kari

Turner, Sally

Kent, Clark

Scott, Stephen

Note: This command cannot be used to list all employees in Norway and USA. In the example above we have two employees with equal names, and only one of them is listed. The UNION command only selects distinct values.

________________________________________

UNION ALL

The UNION ALL command is equal to the UNION command, except that UNION ALL selects all values.

SQL Statement 1

UNION ALL

SQL Statement 2



________________________________________

Using the UNION ALL Command

Example

List all employees in Norway and USA:

SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_Norway

UNION ALL

SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_USA

Result

E_Name

Hansen, Ola

Svendson, Tove

Svendson, Stephen

Pettersen, Kari

Turner, Sally

Kent, Clark

Svendson, Stephen

Scott, Stephen

SQL Create Database, Table, and Index



________________________________________

Create a Database

To create a database:

CREATE DATABASE database_name



________________________________________

Create a Table

To create a table in a database:

CREATE TABLE table_name

(

column_name1 data_type,

column_name2 data_type,

.......

)

Example

This example demonstrates how you can create a table named "Person", with four columns. The column names will be "LastName", "FirstName", "Address", and "Age":

CREATE TABLE Person

(

LastName varchar,

FirstName varchar,

Address varchar,

Age int

)

This example demonstrates how you can specify a maximum length for some columns:

CREATE TABLE Person

(

LastName varchar(30),

FirstName varchar,

Address varchar,

Age int(3)

)

The data type specifies what type of data the column can hold. The table below contains the most common data types in SQL:

Data Type Description

integer(size)

int(size)

smallint(size)

tinyint(size) Hold integers only. The maximum number of digits are specified in parenthesis.

decimal(size,d)

numeric(size,d) Hold numbers with fractions. The maximum number of digits are specified in "size". The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal is specified in "d".

char(size) Holds a fixed length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The fixed size is specified in parenthesis.

varchar(size) Holds a variable length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The maximum size is specified in parenthesis.

date(yyyymmdd) Holds a date



________________________________________

Create Index

Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table, and each index is given a name. The users cannot see the indexes, they are just used to speed up queries.

Note: Updating a table containing indexes takes more time than updating a table without, this is because the indexes also need an update. So, it is a good idea to create indexes only on columns that are often used for a search.

A Unique Index

Creates a unique index on a table. A unique index means that two rows cannot have the same index value.

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name

ON table_name (column_name)

The "column_name" specifies the column you want indexed.

A Simple Index

Creates a simple index on a table. When the UNIQUE keyword is omitted, duplicate values are allowed.

CREATE INDEX index_name

ON table_name (column_name)

The "column_name" specifies the column you want indexed.

Example

This example creates a simple index, named "PersonIndex", on the LastName field of the Person table:

CREATE INDEX PersonIndex

ON Person (LastName)

If you want to index the values in a column in descending order, you can add the reserved word DESC after the column name:

CREATE INDEX PersonIndex

ON Person (LastName DESC)

If you want to index more than one column you can list the column names within the parentheses, separated by commas:

CREATE INDEX PersonIndex

ON Person (LastName, FirstName)

SQL Drop Index, Table and Database



________________________________________

Drop Index

You can delete an existing index in a table with the DROP INDEX statement.

Syntax for Microsoft SQLJet (and Microsoft Access):

DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name

Syntax for MS SQL Server:

DROP INDEX table_name.index_name

Syntax for IBM DB2 and Oracle:

DROP INDEX index_name

Syntax for MySQL:

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP INDEX index_name



________________________________________

Delete a Table or Database

To delete a table (the table structure, attributes, and indexes will also be deleted):

DROP TABLE table_name

To delete a database:

DROP DATABASE database_name



________________________________________

Truncate a Table

What if we only want to get rid of the data inside a table, and not the table itself? Use the TRUNCATE TABLE command (deletes only the data inside the table):

TRUNCATE TABLE table_name

SQL ALTER TABLE



________________________________________

ALTER TABLE

The ALTER TABLE statement is used to add or drop columns in an existing table.

ALTER TABLE table_name

ADD column_name datatype

ALTER TABLE table_name

DROP COLUMN column_name

Note: Some database systems don't allow the dropping of a column in a database table (DROP COLUMN column_name).

________________________________________

Person:

LastName FirstName Address

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20



________________________________________

Example

To add a column named "City" in the "Person" table:

ALTER TABLE Person ADD City varchar(30)

Result:

LastName FirstName Address City

Pettersen Kari Storgt 20

Example

To drop the "Address" column in the "Person" table:

ALTER TABLE Person DROP COLUMN Address

Result:

LastName FirstName City

Pettersen Kari

SQL Functions



________________________________________

SQL has a lot of built-in functions for counting and calculations.

________________________________________

Function Syntax

The syntax for built-in SQL functions is:

SELECT function(column) FROM table



________________________________________

Types of Functions

There are several basic types and categories of functions in SQL. The basic types of functions are:

• Aggregate Functions

• Scalar functions

________________________________________

Aggregate functions

Aggregate functions operate against a collection of values, but return a single value.

Note: If used among many other expressions in the item list of a SELECT statement, the SELECT must have a GROUP BY clause!!

"Persons" table (used in most examples)

Name Age

Hansen, Ola 34

Svendson, Tove 45

Pettersen, Kari 19

Aggregate functions in MS Access

Function Description

AVG(column)

Returns the average value of a column

COUNT(column)

Returns the number of rows (without a NULL value) of a column

COUNT(*)

Returns the number of selected rows

FIRST(column) Returns the value of the first record in a specified field

LAST(column) Returns the value of the last record in a specified field

MAX(column)

Returns the highest value of a column

MIN(column)

Returns the lowest value of a column

STDEV(column)

STDEVP(column)

SUM(column)

Returns the total sum of a column

VAR(column)

VARP(column)

Aggregate functions in SQL Server

Function Description

AVG(column)

Returns the average value of a column

BINARY_CHECKSUM

CHECKSUM

CHECKSUM_AGG

COUNT(column)

Returns the number of rows (without a NULL value) of a column

COUNT(*)

Returns the number of selected rows

COUNT(DISTINCT column)

Returns the number of distinct results

FIRST(column)

Returns the value of the first record in a specified field (not supported in SQLServer2K)

LAST(column)

Returns the value of the last record in a specified field (not supported in SQLServer2K)

MAX(column)

Returns the highest value of a column

MIN(column)

Returns the lowest value of a column

STDEV(column)

STDEVP(column)

SUM(column)

Returns the total sum of a column

VAR(column)

VARP(column)



________________________________________

Scalar functions

Scalar functions operate against a single value, and return a single value based on the input value.

Useful Scalar Functions in MS Access

Function Description

UCASE(c) Converts a field to upper case

LCASE(c) Converts a field to lower case

MID(c,start[,end]) Extract characters from a text field

LEN(c) Returns the length of a text field

INSTR(c,char) Returns the numeric position of a named character within a text field

LEFT(c,number_of_char) Return the left part of a text field requested

RIGHT(c,number_of_char) Return the right part of a text field requested

ROUND(c,decimals) Rounds a numeric field to the number of decimals specified

MOD(x,y) Returns the remainder of a division operation

NOW() Returns the current system date

FORMAT(c,format) Changes the way a field is displayed

DATEDIFF(d,date1,date2) Used to perform date calculations

SQL GROUP BY and HAVING



________________________________________

Aggregate functions (like SUM) often need an added GROUP BY functionality.

________________________________________

GROUP BY...

GROUP BY... was added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called, and without the GROUP BY function it was impossible to find the sum for each individual group of column values.

The syntax for the GROUP BY function is:

SELECT column,SUM(column) FROM table GROUP BY column



________________________________________

GROUP BY Example

This "Sales" Table:

Company Amount

W3Schools 5500

IBM 4500

W3Schools 7100

And This SQL:

SELECT Company, SUM(Amount) FROM Sales

Returns this result:

Company SUM(Amount)

W3Schools 17100

IBM 17100

W3Schools 17100

The above code is invalid because the column returned is not part of an aggregate. A GROUP BY clause will solve this problem:

SELECT Company,SUM(Amount) FROM Sales

GROUP BY Company

Returns this result:

Company SUM(Amount)

W3Schools 12600

IBM 4500



________________________________________

HAVING...

HAVING... was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used against aggregate functions (like SUM), and without HAVING... it would be impossible to test for result conditions.

The syntax for the HAVING function is:

SELECT column,SUM(column) FROM table

GROUP BY column

HAVING SUM(column) condition value

This "Sales" Table:

Company Amount

W3Schools 5500

IBM 4500

W3Schools 7100

This SQL:

SELECT Company,SUM(Amount) FROM Sales

GROUP BY Company

HAVING SUM(Amount)>10000

Returns this result

Company SUM(Amount)

W3Schools 12600

SQL SELECT INTO Statement



________________________________________

The SELECT INTO Statement

The SELECT INTO statement is most often used to create backup copies of tables or for archiving records.

Syntax

SELECT column_name(s) INTO newtable [IN externaldatabase]

FROM source



________________________________________

Make a Backup Copy

The following example makes a backup copy of the "Persons" table:

SELECT * INTO Persons_backup

FROM Persons

The IN clause can be used to copy tables into another database:

SELECT Persons.* INTO Persons IN 'Backup.mdb'

FROM Persons

If you only want to copy a few fields, you can do so by listing them after the SELECT statement:

SELECT LastName,FirstName INTO Persons_backup

FROM Persons

You can also add a WHERE clause. The following example creates a "Persons_backup" table with two columns (FirstName and LastName) by extracting the persons who lives in "Sandnes" from the "Persons" table:

SELECT LastName,Firstname INTO Persons_backup

FROM Persons

WHERE City='Sandnes'

Selecting data from more than one table is also possible. The following example creates a new table "Empl_Ord_backup" that contains data from the two tables Employees and Orders:

SELECT Employees.Name,Orders.Product

INTO Empl_Ord_backup

FROM Employees

INNER JOIN Orders

ON Employees.Employee_ID=Orders.Employee_ID

SQL CREATE VIEW Statement



________________________________________

A view is a virtual table based on the result-set of a SELECT statement.

________________________________________

What is a View?

In SQL, a VIEW is a virtual table based on the result-set of a SELECT statement.

A view contains rows and columns, just like a real table. The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database. You can add SQL functions, WHERE, and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from a single table.

Note: The database design and structure will NOT be affected by the functions, where, or join statements in a view.

Syntax

CREATE VIEW view_name AS

SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE condition

Note: The database does not store the view data! The database engine recreates the data, using the view's SELECT statement, every time a user queries a view.

________________________________________

Using Views

A view could be used from inside a query, a stored procedure, or from inside another view. By adding functions, joins, etc., to a view, it allows you to present exactly the data you want to the user.

The sample database Northwind has some views installed by default. The view "Current Product List" lists all active products (products that are not discontinued) from the Products table. The view is created with the following SQL:

CREATE VIEW [Current Product List] AS

SELECT ProductID,ProductName

FROM Products

WHERE Discontinued=No

We can query the view above as follows:

SELECT * FROM [Current Product List]

Another view from the Northwind sample database selects every product in the Products table that has a unit price that is higher than the average unit price:

CREATE VIEW [Products Above Average Price] AS

SELECT ProductName,UnitPrice

FROM Products

WHERE UnitPrice>(SELECT AVG(UnitPrice) FROM Products)

We can query the view above as follows:

SELECT * FROM [Products Above Average Price]

Another example view from the Northwind database calculates the total sale for each category in 1997. Note that this view selects its data from another view called "Product Sales for 1997":

CREATE VIEW [Category Sales For 1997] AS

SELECT DISTINCT CategoryName,Sum(ProductSales) AS CategorySales

FROM [Product Sales for 1997]

GROUP BY CategoryName

We can query the view above as follows:

SELECT * FROM [Category Sales For 1997]

We can also add a condition to the query. Now we want to see the total sale only for the category "Beverages":

SELECT * FROM [Category Sales For 1997]

WHERE CategoryName='Beverages'

SQL Quick Reference



________________________________________

SQL Quick Reference from W3Schools. Print it, and fold it in your pocket.

________________________________________

SQL Syntax

Statement Syntax

AND / OR SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE condition

AND
OR condition

ALTER TABLE (add column) ALTER TABLE table_name

ADD column_name datatype

ALTER TABLE (drop column) ALTER TABLE table_name

DROP COLUMN column_name

AS (alias for column) SELECT column_name AS column_alias

FROM table_name

AS (alias for table) SELECT column_name

FROM table_name AS table_alias

BETWEEN SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE column_name

BETWEEN value1 AND value2

CREATE DATABASE CREATE DATABASE database_name

CREATE INDEX CREATE INDEX index_name

ON table_name (column_name)

CREATE TABLE CREATE TABLE table_name

(

column_name1 data_type,

column_name2 data_type,

.......

)

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name

ON table_name (column_name)

CREATE VIEW CREATE VIEW view_name AS

SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE condition

DELETE FROM DELETE FROM table_name

(Note: Deletes the entire table!!)

or

DELETE FROM table_name

WHERE condition

DROP DATABASE DROP DATABASE database_name

DROP INDEX DROP INDEX table_name.index_name

DROP TABLE DROP TABLE table_name

GROUP BY SELECT column_name1,SUM(column_name2)

FROM table_name

GROUP BY column_name1

HAVING SELECT column_name1,SUM(column_name2)

FROM table_name

GROUP BY column_name1

HAVING SUM(column_name2) condition value

IN SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE column_name

IN (value1,value2,..)

INSERT INTO INSERT INTO table_name

VALUES (value1, value2,....)

or

INSERT INTO table_name

(column_name1, column_name2,...)

VALUES (value1, value2,....)

LIKE SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE column_name

LIKE pattern

ORDER BY SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

ORDER BY column_name [ASC
DESC]

SELECT SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

SELECT * SELECT *

FROM table_name

SELECT DISTINCT SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

SELECT INTO

(used to create backup copies of tables) SELECT *

INTO new_table_name

FROM original_table_name

or

SELECT column_name(s)

INTO new_table_name

FROM original_table_name

TRUNCATE TABLE

(deletes only the data inside the table) TRUNCATE TABLE table_name

UPDATE UPDATE table_name

SET column_name=new_value

[, column_name=new_value]

WHERE column_name=some_value

WHERE SELECT column_name(s)

FROM table_name

WHERE condition
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